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ⵜⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵜ

ⵙⴳ ⵡⵉⴽⵉⴱⵉⴷⵢⴰ
(ⵜⴻⵜⵜⵓⵙⵡⴰⵍⴰ ⴷ ⵙⴳ ⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ)
ⵜⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵜ
ⵜⴰⵊⵓⵎⵎⴰ 30,370,000 ⴽⵎ²
ⵜⴰⵔⴰⵖⵔⴼⵜ 1,225,080,510[1] ⵏ ⵉⵎⵣⴷⴰⵖ. (2016)
ⴰⵙⵎⵖⵔⴼ ⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵏ
ⵜⴰⵏⵥⵥⵉ 36.4/ⴽⵎ²
ⵜⵉⵎⵓⵔⴰ 54

ⵜⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵜⴰⵎⵏⵥⴰⵡ ⵢⵓⵎⵥⵏ 6% ⵏ ⵜⴰⵙⵏⴰ ⵏ ⵡⴰⴽⴰⵍ, ⵢⴰⵎⵥ 20% ⵙⴳ ⵜⴰⵙⵏⴰ ⵏ ⵡⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⵢⵓⵎⴰⵏⵏ (ⵜⴰⵏⵏⴰ ⵅⴼ ⵓⵔ ⵉⴽⴽⵉ ⵢⵉⵍⵍ). ⵜⴰⵊⵓⵎⵎⴰ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵜⵉⵡⴹ ⴰⵔ 30 415 873 ⴽⵎ² ⵏⵜⵜⴰⵜ ⴷ ⵜⴳⵣⵉⵔⵉⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⴰⵢⵏⵏⴰ ⵜⵜ ⵢⵓⵊⵊⴰⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵜⴳ ⵜⵉⵙⵙ ⴽⵕⴰⴹⵜ ⴳ ⵓⵎⴰⴹⴰⵍ (ⵎⴽ ⵏⴳⴰ ⴰⵎⵔⵉⴽⴰ ⴷ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵎⵏⵥⴰⵡ). ⵙ 1,225,080,510[1] ⵏ ⵉⵎⵣⴷⴰⵖⵏ, ⵜⴳⴰ ⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ ⵜⵉⵙⵙ ⵙⵏⴰⵜ ⴳ ⵡⵓⵟⵟⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵣⴷⴰⵖⵏ ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⴰⵙⵢⴰ, ⵜⵉⵍⵉ ⴷⵉⴳⵙ 16,4% ⵏ ⵉⵎⵣⴷⴰⵖⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵎⴰⴹⴰⵍ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⵏ 2016. ⴰⵎⵏⵥⴰⵡ ⴰⴷ ⵉⴳⵍⵉ ⵜ ⵉⴷ ⵢⵉⵍⵍ ⴰⴳⵔⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⴳ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ, ⴰⴱⴰⴷⵓ ⵏ ⵙⵙⵡⵉⵙⵢⵉⵍⵍ ⴰⵣⴳⴳⵯⴰⵖ ⴳ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⴰⴳⵎⵓⴹⴰⵏ, ⴰⴳⴰⵔⴰⵡ ⴰⵀⵉⵏⴷⵉ ⴳ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ ⴰⴳⵎⵓⴹⴰⵏ ⴷ ⵓⴳⴰⵔⴰⵡ ⴰⵏⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ ⴳ ⵓⵜⴰⵔⴰⵎ.

ⵜⴰⵙⵏⴰⵥⵖⵓⵕⵜ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⴳⴳⵓⵜⵏⵜ ⵜⵓⵔⴷⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵅⴼ ⵓⵙⴰⵍⴰ ⵏ ⵢⵉⵙⵎ ⵏ ⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ. ⵉⵍⵍⴰ ⵎⴰⵢⴷ ⵉⴼⴽⴰⵏ ⵉⵙⵎ ⴰⴼⵔⵉ ⵉ ⵉⵎⵣⴷⴰⵖⵏ ⵏ ⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ ⵏ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⴳ ⵓⵜⴰⵔⴰⵎ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵙⵉⴼ ⵏ ⵓⵏⵉⵍ, ⴳ ⵓⵏⴰⵎⴽ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴰⵎⴰⵜⴰⵢ ⵉⵜⵜⵓⴼⴽⴰ ⵉ ⵉⴽⴰⵍⵉⵡⵏ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵉⵍⵍⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ ⵏ ⵢⵉⵍⵍ ⴰⴳⵔⴰⴽⴰⵍ (ⵍⵉⴱⵢⴰ ⵜⴰⵣⴰⵢⴽⵓⵜ).[2][3] ⵉⴽⴽⴰ ⵢⵉⵙⵎ ⴰⴼⵔⵉ ⵉⵣⴷⵉ ⴷ ⵜⴳⵓⵔⵉ ⵜⴰⴼⵉⵏⵉⵇⵜ Afar (ⴰⴼⴰⵔ) ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵙⵏⴰⵎⴽⵏ "ⴰⴳⴹⵕⵓⵕ"[4] ⵎⴰⵛⴰ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ 1981 ⵓⵎⴰⵏⵏⵜ ⴷ ⴽⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵔⴷⵉⵡⵉⵏ[5] ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵜⵜⵉⵏⵉⵏ ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ ⵉⵙⵎ ⴰⴼⵔⵉ ⵉⴽⴽⴰ ⴷ ⵜⴰⴳⵓⵔⵉ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ ⵉⴼⵔⵉ (ⴰⵎⴰⴳⵓⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ: ⵉⴼⵔⴰⵏ) ⵙ ⵡⴰⵙⵙⴰⵖ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴷ ⵉⵎⵣⴷⴰⵖⵏ ⵏ ⵉⴼⵔⴰⵏ.[6] ⵜⴰⴳⵓⵔⵉ ⴰⴷ ⵏⵉⵜ[6] ⴷⴰ ⵜⵜ ⵏⵜⵜⴰⴼⴰ ⴳ ⵢⵉⵙⵎ ⵏ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵡⵙⵉⵜ [[ⴱⴰⵏⵓ

ⴰⵢⵜ ⵉⴼⵔⴰⵏ|ⴰⵢⵜ ⵢⴰⴼⵔⴰⵏ]] ⴳ ⴷⵣⴰⵢⵔⵍⵉⴱⵢⴰ, ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵡⵙⵉⵜ ⵙⴳ ⵢⴼⵔⴰⵏ (ⵜⴻⵜⵜⵡⴰⵙⵙⵏ ⴰⵡⴷ ⵙ ⵉⴼⵔⴰⵏ) ⴳ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⵓⵜⵔⵉⵎ ⵏ ⵍⵉⴱⵢⴰ.[7]

ⴷⴷⵓ ⵓⵏⴱⴰⴹ ⵏ ⵉⵔⵓⵎⴰⵏⵉⵢⵏ, ⵜⴳⴰ ⵇⴰⵕⵟⴰⵊ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵥⵓⵏⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵙⴳⴰ ⵏ ⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ ⵜⴰⵔⵓⵎⴰⵏⵉⵜ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵢⵓⵎⵥⵏ ⴰⵡⴷ ⵉⴼⵜⴰⵙⵏ ⵏ ⵍⵉⴱⵢⴰ ⵜⴰⵜⵔⴰⵔⵜ, ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⵜⵉⵕⵥⵉ ⵏ ⵉⵇⵕⵟⴰⵊⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵎⴳⴰⵔⵓ ⴰⴱⵓⵏⵉⴽ ⵡⵉⵙⵙ ⴽⵕⴰⴹ ⴳ 146 ⴷⴰⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵍⴰⵍⵉⵜ.[8] ⴰⵎⵎⴰ -ⴽⴰ (-ca) ⵏⵖ -ⵉⴽⴰ (-ica), ⵉⴳⴰ ⴰⴹⴼⵉⵕ ⴰⵡⵍⴰⵜⵉⵏ (Latin suffix) ⵙ ⵓⵏⴰⵎⴽ ⵏ ⵡⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⵏⵉⵖ ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ.

ⵜⵓⵔⴷⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵢⴰⴹⵏ ⵅⴼ ⵓⵙⴰⵍⴰ ⵏ ⵢⵉⵙⵎ ⵏ ⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ
  • ⴳ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⴰⵎⵣⵡⴰⵔⵓⵜ, ⵉⵙⵙⵍⴽⵏ ⵓⵏⵎⵣⵔⴰⵢ ⵓⴷⴰⵢ ⴼⵍⴰⴼⵢⵓⵙ ⵊⵓⵣⵉⴼⵓⵙ (Ant. 1.15) ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ ⵉⴷⴷⴰ ⵢⵉⵙⵎ ⵙⴳ ⵉⴼⵉⵔ (Epher), ⵢⴰⵏ ⵙⴳ ⵡⴰⵢⵢⴰⵡⵏ ⵏ ⴱⵕⴰⵀⵉⵎ, ⵏⵏⴰ ⵎⵓ ⵣⵓⴳⵏ ⵡⴰⵢⵢⴰⵡⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵖⵔ ⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ.
  • ⴳ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⵉⵙⵙ ⵙⴰⵜ, ⵉⵙⵙⵓⵎⵔ ⵉⵣⵉⴷⵓⵔ ⵏ ⵉⵛⴱⵉⵍⵢⴰ ⴳ ⵓⴷⵍⵉⵙ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵉⵥⵓⵕⴰⵏ (Etymologiae XIV.5.2) ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ ⵉⴷⴷⴰ ⵢⵉⵙⵎ ⵏ ⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ ⵙⴳ ⵜⴳⵓⵔⵉ ⵜⴰⵡⵍⴰⵜⵉⵏⵜ (ⴰⴱⵔⵉⴽⴰ / Aprica), ⴰⵏⴰⵎⴽ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵉⴼⴼⵓⴽ (ⵜⵍⵍⴰ ⴳⵉⵙ ⵜⴰⴼⵓⴽⵜ).
  • ⵉⵏⵏⴰ ⵎⵉⵛⵉⵍ ⴼⵔⵓⵢⵜ 1976[9] ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ ⵉⵙⵎ ⴰⵡⵍⴰⵜⵉⵏ ⵉⵇⵇⵏ ⵙ ⵜⴳⵓⵔⵉ africus (ⴰⴼⵔⵉⴽⵓⵙ) "ⴰⴹⵓ ⵏ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ", ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⴳⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴰⵍⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴱⵔⵢⴰⵏⵜ (Umbrian), ⵉⴳ ⵓⵏⴰⵎⴽ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴰⵎⵣⵡⴰⵔⵓ ⴰⴹⵓ ⴱⵓ ⵓⵏⵥⴰⵕ (rainy wind).

ⴰⵎⵣⵔⵓⵢ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⴰⵣⵎⵣ ⵏ ⵓⵥⵕⵓ ⴰⵇⴱⵓⵔ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⴷⴳ ⵜⵉⵣⵡⵉⵔⵉ ⵏ ⵓⵣⵎⵣ ⴰⵏⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ ⵜⴽⴽⴰ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⵇⵜ ⴰⴽⴷ ⵉⵎⵏⵥⴰⵡⵏ ⵢⴰⴷⵏ ⵎⵓⵏⵏ ⴳⵉⵏ ⵅⵙ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵎⵏⵥⴰⵡ ⵉⵙⵎⵏⵙ "ⴰⵎⵏⵥⴰⵡ ⵏ ⴱⴰⵏⵊⵢⴰ" ⵏⵉⵖ "ⴱⴰⵏⵊⵡⴰⵏⴰ" (ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵎⵏⵥⴰⵡ ⴰⵎⵇⵇⵔⴰⵏ ⵉⴽⴰⵜⵉⵏ ⵉⵍⵍⴰ) ⴰⵣⵎⵣⴰⴷ ⴽⴰⵜⵉⵏ ⵉⴷⴷⵔ ⴷⵉⴽⵙ ⵉⵎⵓⴷⴰⵔ ⴰⴽⵯ ⵢⴰⵎⵓⵏ ⵖⵔ ⵜⴰⴳⵔⵓⵎⵎⴰ ⵏ ⵉⴹⵉⵏⵓⵥⵓⵔⵏ ⵏ (ⵜⵉⵕⵓⴱⵓⴷⴰ), ⴷ ⵉⴹⵉⵏⵓⵥⵓⵔⵏ ⵏ prosauropods,ⴷ ⵜⴰⴳⵔⵓⵎⵎⴰ ⵏ ⵉⴹⵉⵏⵓⵥⵓⵔⵏ ⵉⵎⵣⵡⵉⵔⴰ ornithischian

ⵜⴰⵍⴰⵍⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵏⴰⵡ ⴰⵏⴼⴳⴰⵏ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⴻⵜⵜⵓⵙⵎⴰⵇⵇⵍ ⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ ⵉⵙ ⵜⴳⴰ ⴰⵏⵜⵜⵉ ⵏ ⵜⵉⴼⴼⵓⴳⵏⴰ.

ⴰⵣⵔⵎⵣⵔⵓⵢ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⴰⴳⵣⵣⵓⵎⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵜⵅⵡⴰ, ⵓⵔ ⴷⵉⴳⵙ ⵉⵍⵍⵉ ⵓⵎⵢⴰ, ⴰⵡⵙ ⴳ ⵜⵉⵔⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴳⵣⵣⵓⵎⵜ ⴰⴷ !

ⵜⵉⵖⵔⵎⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵎⵣⵡⵓⵔⴰ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⴰⴳⵣⵣⵓⵎⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵜⵅⵡⴰ, ⵓⵔ ⴷⵉⴳⵙ ⵉⵍⵍⵉ ⵓⵎⵢⴰ, ⴰⵡⵙ ⴳ ⵜⵉⵔⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴳⵣⵣⵓⵎⵜ ⴰⴷ !

ⵙⴳ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⵉⵙⵙ ⵜⵥⴰⵜ ⴰⵔ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⵉⵙⵙ ⵜⴰⵎ ⴷ ⵎⵔⴰⵡⵜ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⴰⴳⵣⵣⵓⵎⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵜⵅⵡⴰ, ⵓⵔ ⴷⵉⴳⵙ ⵉⵍⵍⵉ ⵓⵎⵢⴰ, ⴰⵡⵙ ⴳ ⵜⵉⵔⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴳⵣⵣⵓⵎⵜ ⴰⴷ !

ⵜⴰⵙⴱⴱⴰⴱⵜ ⵏ ⵉⵙⵎⴳⴰⵏ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⴰⴳⵣⵣⵓⵎⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵜⵅⵡⴰ, ⵓⵔ ⴷⵉⴳⵙ ⵉⵍⵍⵉ ⵓⵎⵢⴰ, ⴰⵡⵙ ⴳ ⵜⵉⵔⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴳⵣⵣⵓⵎⵜ ⴰⴷ !

ⴰⵙⴷⵓⵔⵔⵉ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⴰⴳⵣⵣⵓⵎⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵜⵅⵡⴰ, ⵓⵔ ⴷⵉⴳⵙ ⵉⵍⵍⵉ ⵓⵎⵢⴰ, ⴰⵡⵙ ⴳ ⵜⵉⵔⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴳⵣⵣⵓⵎⵜ ⴰⴷ !

ⴹⴰⵕⵜ ⵓⵙⴷⵓⵔⵔⵉ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⴰⴳⵣⵣⵓⵎⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵜⵅⵡⴰ, ⵓⵔ ⴷⵉⴳⵙ ⵉⵍⵍⵉ ⵓⵎⵢⴰ, ⴰⵡⵙ ⴳ ⵜⵉⵔⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴳⵣⵣⵓⵎⵜ ⴰⴷ !

ⵜⴰⵔⴰⴽⴰⵍⵜ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⴰⵡⵍⴰⴼⵜ ⵏ ⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ ⴳ ⵡⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ, ⵙ ⵓⵙⴰⵜⵉⵍⵉⵜ

ⵜⴳⴰ ⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ ⵍⵍⵉ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏ ⴳⵔ ⴽⵕⴰⴹ ⵉⴱⵓⴷⵉⴷⵏ ⵉⵏⵥⵓⵍⴰⵏⵏ ⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵜⴰⵖⴰⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵡⴰⴽⴰⵍ. ⵉⴱⴹⴰ ⵜⵜ ⵢⵉⵍⵍ ⴰⴳⵔⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⵅⴼ ⵓⵕⵓⴱⴱⴰ, ⵜⵣⴷⵉ ⴷ ⴰⵙⵢⴰ ⴳ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⴰⴳⵎⵓⴹⴰⵏ ⵙ ⵓⴱⴰⴷⵓ ⵏ ⵙⵓⵡⵉⵙ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵎⵉ ⵜⵍⵍⴰ ⴳ ⵜⵉⵔⵓⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ 163 ⴽⵉⵍⵓⵎⵉⵜⵔ.[10] (ⴷⴳ ⵜⵔⴰⴽⴰⵍⵜ, ⴷⴰ ⵜⴻⵜⵜⵓⵙⵎⵉⵍ ⵜⵎⴳⵣⵉⵔⵜ ⵙⵉⵏⴰ ⵜⴰⵡⵎⵉⵚⵔⵜ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵍⵍⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵓⴳⵎⵓⴹ ⵏ ⵙⵡⵉⵙ ⴷ ⵓⴳⵣⵣⵓⵎ ⵙⴳ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ)[11] ⵜⵜⵉⵏ ⵉ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵉⴼⵜⴰⵙⵏ ⵙ ⵜⵖⵣⵉ ⵏ 26.000 ⴽⵉⵍⵓⵎⵉⵜⵔ.

ⵙⴳ ⵜⵜⵎⵉ ⵏ ⵉⵡⵜⵜⴰ ⵏ ⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ ⴳ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ, ⵔⴰⵙ ⴱⵏ ⵙⴰⵇⵇⴰⵜⵓⵏⵙ (37°21' ⴰⴳⴰⴼⴰ) ⴰⵔ ⵜⵜⵎⵉ ⵏ ⵉⵡⵜⵜⴰ ⴳ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ, ⴽⵉⴱ ⴰⴳⵓⵍⵀⴰⵙⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ ⵏ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ (34°51'15 ⴰⵏⵥⵓⵍ), ⵉⵍⵍⴰ ⵓⵣⴰⵔⵓ ⵏ 8,000 ⴽⵉⵍⵓⵎⵉⵜⵔ (5,000 ⵎⵉⵍ);[12] ⴷ ⵙⴳ ⵜⵜⵎⵉ ⵏ ⵉⵡⵜⵜⴰ ⴳ ⵓⵜⴰⵔⴰⵎ, ⵉⵖⴼ ⴰⵣⴳⵣⴰⵡ (34°51'15" ⴰⵜⴰⵔⴰⵎ) ⴰⵔ ⵜⵜⵎⵉ ⵏ ⵉⵡⵜⵜⴰ ⴳ ⵓⴳⵎⵓⴹ, ⵔⴰⵙ ⵀⴰⴼⵓⵏⵚⵓⵎⴰⵍ (51°27'52" ⴰⴳⵎⵓⴹ), ⵉⵍⵍⴰ ⵓⵣⴰⵔⵓ ⵏ 7,400 ⴽⵉⵍⵓⵎⵉⵜⵔ (4,600 ⵎⵉⵍ).[13]

ⵜⴳⴰ ⴷⵣⴰⵢⵔ ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏ ⴳ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵉⴷⴷⵖ ⵜⵍⴽⵎ ⵜⵊⵓⵎⵎⴰ ⵏⵏⵙ 2,381,741 ⴽⵉⵍⵓⵎⵉⵜⵔ ⴰⵎⴽⴽⵓⵥ, ⵜⴹⴼⵕ ⵜⵜ ⵉⵏⵏ ⵙⵓⴷⴰⵏ ⵙ 1,865,813 ⴽⵉⵍⵓⵎⵉⵜⵔ ⴰⵎⴽⴽⵓⵥ, ⴰⵎⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵎⵥⵥⵉⵢⵏ ⵜⴳⴰ ⵜⵜ ⵙⵉⵛⵍ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⴳⴰⵏ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵡⴰⵔⴽⴰⴱⵉⵍ ⴳ ⵓⴼⵜⴰⵙ ⴰⴳⵎⵓⴹⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ.[14] ⵜⴳⴰ ⴳⴰⵎⴱⵢⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵎⵥⵥⵉⵢⵏ ⴳ ⵓⴳⵏⵙ ⵏ ⵡⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⴰⴷⵙⵍⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ.

ⵜⴰⴷⴰⵎⵙⴰ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

  CEN-SAD
  COMESA
  EAC
  ECCAS
  ECOWAS
  IGAD
  SADC
  UMA

ⵎⵇⵇⴰⵔ ⴳⴳⵓⵜⵏ ⵉⵙⵓⴳⴰⵎ ⵉⴳⴰⵎⴰⵏⵏ ⴳ ⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ, ⵙⵓⵍ ⵜⴳⴰ ⵜⴰⴷ ⴱⴰⵀⵔⴰ ⵉⵥⵍⴹⵏ ⴷ ⵜⵎⴳⴳⴰⵔⵓⵜ ⴳ ⵜⴳⵎⵉ ⵜⴰⵏⴼⴳⴰⵏⵜ ⴳⵔ ⵉⵎⵏⵥⴰⵡⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵎⴰⴹⴰⵍ. ⵙⴳ ⵉⵙⵔⴰⴳⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵢⴰ ⵍⵍⴰⵏⵜ ⵜⵎⵓⴹⴰⵏ ⵉⵏⵇⵇⴰⵏ ⴷ ⵉⴼⵉⵔⵓⵙⵏ (ⵍⵓⵎⵔ ⵉⴼⵉⵔⵓⵙⵏ ⵏ ⵎⴰⵍⴰⵔⵢⴰⵙⵉⴷⴰ), ⵜⵉⵏⴱⴰⴹⵉⵏ ⵉⴳⵓⴼⵙⴰⵏ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵙⴽⴰⵔⵏ ⵉⴱⴽⴽⴰⴹⵏ ⵉⵎⵉⵣⵉⵜⵏ ⵎⴳⴰⵍ ⵉⵣⵔⴼⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵓⴼⴳⴰⵏ, ⴰⵍⴰⵢ ⵏ ⵉⵙⵡⵉⵔⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵇⴱⴱⴰⵏⵉⵜ, ⵉⵎⵏⵖⴰⵏ ⴳⵔ ⵜⵡⵙⵉⵜⵉⵏ[15].ⵜⵉⵡⵉ ⴷ ⵜⴰⵏⴰⴹⵜ ⵏ ⵜⴳⵎⵉ ⵜⴰⵏⴼⴳⴰⵏⵜ ⵏⵏⴰ ⴷ ⵜⵙⵙⵓⴼⵖ ⵜⵎⴰⴷⴷⴰⵙⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵜⵜⴰ ⵉⵎⵓⵏⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ 2003 ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ ⵙⵉⵎⵔⴰⵡ ⴷ ⵙⵎⵎⵓⵙⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵓⵔⴰ ⵍⵍⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⴳⵔ ⵜⵙⴽⵯⴼⴰⵍ 151 ⴷ 175 ⴳⴰⵏⵜ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵜⵉⵡⵔⵉⴽⵉⵏ.[16]

ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵎⵏⵏⴰⵡ ⵉⵙⵓⵜⴰⴳ ⵙⵙⴽⵏⵏ ⵎⴰⵙ ⵍⵍⴰⵏⵜ ⵡⵓⴳⴳⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵢⵉⴼⴹ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⵜⵜⵓⵙⴰⵡⴰⵍⵏⵉⵏ ⴳ ⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ (ⵢⵓⵏⵉⵙⴽⵓ ⵜⵙⵙⵓⵜⴳ ⴰⵜⵜⴰⵢⵏ ⵏ ⵙⵉⵏ ⵉⴼⴹⵏ).[17] ⵜⵓⴳⵜ ⵏⵏⵙⵏⵜ ⴳⴰⵏⵜ ⵜⵉⵡⴼⵔⵉⴽⵉⵏ ⵙ ⵓⵙⴰⵍⴰ, ⵉⵍⵉⵏⵜ ⵜⵉⵏⵏⴰ ⵎⵓ ⵉⴳⴰ ⵓⵙⴰⵍⴰ ⵏⵏⵙⵏⵜ ⵙⴳ ⵓⵕⵓⴱⴱⴰ ⵏⵉⵖ ⴰⵙⵢⴰ. ⵜⴳⴰ ⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ ⴰⵎⵏⵥⴰⵡ ⴰⴳⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢ ⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵎⴰⴹⴰⵍ, ⴰⵢⵜ ⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ ⵓⵔ ⴷⴰ ⵙⴰⵡⴰⵍⵏ ⵖⴰⵙ ⵎⵏⵏⴰⵡⵜ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵉⵏ, ⵎⴰⵛⴰ ⴰⵔ ⵙⴰⵡⴰⵍⵏ ⴰⵡⴷ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵏⵉⵖ ⵎⵏⵏⴰⵡⵜ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⵙⴳ ⵓⵕⵓⴱⴱⴰ. ⵍⵍⴰⵏⵜ ⴽⴽⵓⵥⵜ ⵜⵡⴰⵛⵓⵍⵉⵏ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏⵉ ⴳ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ :

  • ⵜⴰⵡⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⴰⵏⵜ (Afroasiatic) ⵍⵍⴰⵏⵜ ⴷⴳⵙ ⵡⴰⵜⵜⴰⵢⵏ ⵏ 240 ⵏ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⴷ 285 ⵎⵍⵢⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵙⵙⵉⵡⵍⵏ ⴳ ⵢⵉⵙⴽ ⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ, ⴰⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⵏ ⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ, ⵙⵙⵉⵃⵍ, ⴷ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ ⵓⵜⵔⵉⵎ ⵏ ⴰⵙⵢⴰ.
  • ⵜⴰⵡⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⴰⵏⵜ (Nilo-Saharan) ⵜⵓⵎⴰ ⵓⴳⴳⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵉⴹⵉ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ, ⴷⴰ ⵜⵏⵜ ⵙⴰⵡⴰⵍⵏ 30 ⵎⵍⵢⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵎⴷⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵜⵛⴰⴷ, ⵉⵜⵓⴱⵢⴰ, ⴽⵉⵏⵢⴰ, ⵏⵉⵊⵉⵔⵢⴰ, ⵙⵓⴷⴰⵏ, ⵙⵓⴷⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ, ⵓⴳⴰⵏⴷⴰ, ⴷ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⵏ ⵟⴰⵏⵥⴰⵏⵢⴰ.
  • ⵜⴰⵡⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⴰⵏⵜ (Niger-Congo) ⵜⵙⵎⵓⵏ ⵜⵓⴳⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⴳ ⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ ⴷⴷⴰⵡ ⵜⵏⵣⵔⵓⴼⵜ (Sub-Saharan Africa). ⴳ ⵎⴰ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵥⵍⵉⵏ ⵙ ⵡⵓⵟⵟⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ, ⵜⴳⴰ ⵜⵡⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜ ⴰ ⵜⴰⵍⵍⵉ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏ ⴳ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ, ⵏⵉⵖ ⴷ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⴳ ⵓⵎⴰⴹⴰⵍ.
  • ⵜⴰⵡⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⴰⵏⵜ (Khoisan) ⴷⵉⴳⵙ ⴰⵜⵜⴰⵢⵏ ⵏ ⵙⵎⵎⵓⵎⵔⴰⵡⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ, ⴷⴰ ⵜⵏⵜ ⵙⴰⵡⴰⵍⵏ 400.000 ⵏ ⵓⵎⴷⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ ⵏ ⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ.[18] ⵜⵓⴳⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵜⵡⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵍⵍⴰⵏⵜ ⴳ ⵢⵉⵎⵉⵣⵉ ⵏ ⵡⵓⴼⵓⴹ.

ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⵜⵉⴳⵉⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵓⵙⴷⵓⵔⵔⵉ, ⵙⵙⵏⵚⴱⵏⵜ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵜⵎⵓⵔⴰ ⵏ ⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⴱⵕⵕⴰⵏⵉⵢⵉⵏ ⴰⵎ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵎⴰⴷⴷⵓⴷⵉⵏ, ⵎⵇⵇⴰⵔ ⵎⴽⴰⵏⵏ ⵍⵍⴰⵏⵜ ⵎⵏⵏⴰⵡⵜ ⵜⵎⵓⵔⴰ ⵙⵙⵎⵖⵔⵏⵜ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵉⵢⵏ (ⵣⵓⵏ ⴷ: Swahili, Yoruba, Igbo and Hausa). ⴳ ⵡⴰⵟⵟⴰⵚ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵓⵔⴰ, ⵜⴰⵏⴳⵍⵉⵣⵜⵜⴼⵕⴰⵏⵚⵉⵚⵜ ⴰⵔ ⵜⵜⵓⵙⵎⵔⴰⵙⵏⵜ ⵉ ⵓⵎⵙⴰⵡⴰⴹ ⴳ ⵢⵉⴳⵉ ⵓⵏⴱⵉⵣ ⴰⵎ ⵜⴰⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ, ⵜⴰⵙⵖⵏⵣⵉⵜ, ⴰⵙⵙⵍⵎⴷ ⴷ ⵜⵖⵎⵙⴰ.

ⴰⵙⴳⴷ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⴼⵍⵙⵏ ⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵉⵢⵏ ⵙ ⵎⵏⵏⴰⵡ ⵉⵙⴳⴷⴰⵏ,[19] ⵎⴰⵛ ⵉⵎⵔⴰ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵜⵜⵓⵙⴽⴰⵔ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵙⵉⵟⵟⵏ ⵉ ⵉⵏⴼⵍⴰⵙⵏ ⵏ ⴽⵔⴰⵢⴳⴰⵜ ⴰⵙⴳⴷ, ⴰⵛⴽⵓ ⵓⵔ ⴷⴰ ⵜⵜⵉⵔⵉⵏⵜ ⵜⵏⴱⴰⴹⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵓⵔⴰ ⴳ ⵎⵎⵔⴽⵙⵏ ⵉⵙⴳⴷⴰⵏ.[20] ⵉⵍⵍⴰ ⴳ ⵜⴳⵔⵓⵎⵙⵏⴰ ⴰⴷⵍⵉⵙ ⵏ ⵓⵎⴰⴹⴰⵍ ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ ⴰⵙⴳⴷ ⴰⵏⵙⵍⵎ ⴰⴷ ⴱⴰⵀⵔⴰ ⵉⵏⵢⴰⴷⴷⴰⵏ ⴳ ⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ, ⵉⴹⴼⵕ ⵜ ⵉⴷ ⵓⵙⴳⴷ ⴰⵎⴰⵙⵉⵃ, ⵢⵉⵍⵉ ⴳ ⵜⴳⵔⵓⵎⵙⵏⴰ ⵜⴰⴱⵔⵉⵟⴰⵏⵉⵜ ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ 45% ⵏ ⵉⵎⵣⴷⴰⵖⵏ ⵏ ⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ ⴳⴰⵏ ⵉⵏⵙⵍⵎⵏ, ⴳⵉⵏ ⵉⵎⴰⵙⵉⵃⵉⵏ 40% ⴷ ⴷⴷⴰⵡ 15% ⴳⴰⵏ ⵉⴷ ⵡⴰⵔ ⴰⵙⴳⴷ ⵏⵉⵖ ⴷ ⵉⵎⴹⴼⴰⵕⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵙⴳⴷⴰⵏ ⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵏ, ⵢⵉⵍⵉ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵡⵓⵟⵟⵓⵏ ⵉⴷⵔⵓⵙⵏ ⵏ ⴰⵢⵜ ⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ ⴳⴰⵏ ⵉⵀⵉⵏⴷⵓⵙⵏ, ⵉⴱⴰⵀⴰⵢⵏ, ⴷ ⵡⵓⴷⴰⵢⵏ.

ⵜⵉⵎⵓⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⵇⵜ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⴷⴰⴽⴰⵔ, ⵙⵉⵏⵉⴳⴰⵍ
ⵏⴰⵢⵔⵓⴱⵉ, ⴽⵉⵏⵢⴰ
ⵊⵓⵀⴰⵏⵙⴱⵓⵔⴳ, ⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ ⵏ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ

[[ⴰⴼⴰⵢⵍⵓ:Boulevard, avenue Al Mouahidine à Casablanca.jpg|thumb|ⴰⵏⴼⴰ, ⴰⵎⵓⵔ ⵏ ⵡⴰⴽⵓⵛ [[ⴰⴼⴰⵢⵍⵓ:Cairo at morning.JPG|thumb|ⵜⴰⵇⴰⵀⵉⵔⵜ, ⵎⵉⵚⵔⴰ]]

ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵥⵓⵏⵜ
ⴷⵣⴰⵢⵔ ⴷⵣⴰⵢⵔ
ⵍⵉⴱⵢⴰ ⵟⴰⵔⴰⴱⵍⵓⵙ
ⵎⵉⵚⵕⴰ ⵜⴰⵇⴰⵀⵉⵔⵜ
ⵎⵓⵔⵉⵜⴰⵏⵢⴰ ⵏⵡⴰⴽⵛⵓⵟ
ⴰⵏⴳⵓⵍⴰ ⵍⵓⵡⴰⵏⴷⴰ
ⴱⵉⵏⵉⵏ ⴱⵓⵔⵜⵓ ⵏⵓⴼⵓ
ⴱⵓⵜⵙⵡⴰⵏⴰ ⴳⴰⴱⵓⵔⵓⵏ
ⴱⵓⵔⴽⵉⵏⴰ ⴼⴰⵙⵓ ⵡⴰⴳⴰⴷⵓⴳⵓ
ⴱⵓⵔⵓⵏⴷⵉ ⴱⵓⵊⵓⵎⴱⵓⵔⴰ
ⴽⴰⵎⵉⵔⵓⵏ ⵢⴰⵡⵓⵏⴷⵉ
ⵉⵅⴼ ⴰⵣⴳⵣⴰⵡ ⴱⵔⴰⵢⴰ
ⵜⴰⴳⴷⵓⴷⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⵇⵜ ⵜⴰⵏⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙⵜ ⴱⴰⵏⴳⵉ
ⵜⵛⴰⴷ ⵏⵊⴰⵎⵉⵏⴰ
ⵜⵉⴳⵣⵉⵔⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵢⵢⵓⵔ ⵎⵓⵔⵓⵏⵉ
ⴰⴼⵜⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵡⵓⵥⵔ ⵢⴰⵎⵓⵙⵓⴽⵔⵓ
ⴽⵓⵏⴳⵓ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⴳⴷⵓⵜ ⴽⵉⵏⵛⴰⵙⴰ
ⵊⵉⴱⵓⵜⵉ ⵊⵉⴱⵓⵜⵉ
ⴳⵉⵏⵢⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⵙⵙⴳⴷⵓⵜ ⵎⴰⵍⴰⴱⵓ
ⵉⵔⵉⵜⵉⵔⵢⴰ ⴰⵙⵎⴰⵔⴰ
ⵉⵜⵢⵓⴱⵢⴰ ⴰⴷⴷⵉⵙ ⴰⴱⴰⴱⴰ
ⴳⴰⴱⵓⵏ ⵍⵉⴱⵔⵓⴼⵉⵍ
ⴳⴰⵎⴱⵢⴰ ⴱⴰⵏⵊⵓⵍ
ⴳⴰⵏⴰ ⴰⴽⵔⴰ
ⴳⵉⵏⵢⴰ ⴱⵉⵙⴰⵡ ⴱⵉⵙⴰⵡ
ⴳⵉⵏⵢⴰ ⴽⵓⵏⴰⴽⵔⵉ
ⴽⵉⵏⵢⴰ ⵏⴰⵢⵔⵓⴱⵉ
ⵍⵉⵙⵓⵟⵓ ⵎⴰⵙⵉⵔⵓ
ⵍⵉⴱⵉⵔⵢⴰ ⵎⵓⵏⵔⵓⴼⵢⴰ
ⵎⴰⴷⴰⴳⴰⵙⴽⴰⵔ ⴰⵏⵜⴰⵏⴰⵏⴰⵔⵉⴼⵓ
ⵎⴰⵍⴰⵡⵉ ⵍⵉⵍⵓⵏⴳⵡⵉ
ⵎⴰⵍⵉ ⴱⴰⵎⴰⴽⵓ
ⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ ⵕⵕⴱⴰⵟ
ⵎⵓⵔⵉⵙ (ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ) ⴱⵓⵔ ⵍⵡⵉⵙ
ⵎⵓⵣⴰⵎⴱⵉⵇ ⵎⴰⴱⵓⵜⵓ
ⵏⴰⵎⵉⴱⵢⴰ ⵡⵉⵏⴷⵀⵓⴽ
ⵏⵉⵊⵉⵔ ⵏⵢⴰⵎⵉ
ⵏⵉⵊⵉⵔⵢⴰ ⴰⴱⵓⵊⴰ
ⵜⴰⴳⴷⵓⴷⴰ ⵏ ⴽⵓⵏⴳⵓ ⴱⵔⴰⵣⴰⴼⵉⵍ
ⵔⵡⴰⵏⴷⴰ ⴽⵉⴳⴰⵍⵉ
ⵙⴰⵡⵟⵓⵎⵉ ⴷ ⴱⵔⴰⵏⵙⵉⴱ ⵙⴰⵡⵜⵓⵎⵉ
ⵙⵉⵏⵉⴳⴰⵍ ⴷⴰⴽⴰⵔ
ⵙⵉⵛⵍ ⴼⵉⴽⵜⵓⵔⵢⴰ
ⵙⵉⵔⴰⵍⵢⵓⵏ ⴼⵔⵉⵜⴰⵡⵏ
ⵚⵓⵎⴰⵍ ⵎⵓⵇⴷⵉⵛⵓ
ⵜⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵜ ⵏ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ ⴱⵔⵉⵜⵓⵔⵢⴰ
ⵙⵓⴷⴰⵏ ⵅⴰⵕⵟⵓⵎ
ⴰⵏⵥⵓⵍ ⵏ ⵙⵓⴷⴰⵏ ⵊⵓⴱⴰ
ⵙⵡⴰⵣⵉⵍⴰⵏⴷ ⵍⵓⴱⴰⵎⴱⴰ
ⵟⴰⵏⵥⴰⵏⵢⴰ ⴷⵓⴷⵓⵎⴰ
ⵟⵓⴳⵓ ⵍⵓⵎⵉ
ⵓⴳⴰⵏⴷⴰ ⴽⴰⵎⴱⴰⵍⴰ
ⵜⵓⵏⵙ ⵜⵓⵏⵙ
ⵥⴰⵎⴱⵢⴰ ⵍⵓⵙⴰⴽⴰ
ⵣⵉⵎⴱⴰⴱⵡⵉ ⵀⴰⵔⴰⵔⵉ

ⵥⵕ ⵓⴳⴳⴰⵔ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵉⵙⴰⵖⵓⵍⵏ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

  1. 1.0 1.1 https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/DataQuery/
  2. (ⵙ ⵜⵍⵉⵎⴰⵏⵜ) Georges, Karl Ernst (1913–1918). "Afri". In Georges, Heinrich. Ausführliches lateinisch-deutsches Handwörterbuch (8th ed.). Hannover. Retrieved 20 September 2015…
  3. (ⵙ ⵜⵏⴳⵍⵉⵣⵜ) Lewis, Charlton T.; Short, Charles 1879. Afer A Latin Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  4. (ⵙ ⵜⵏⴳⵍⵉⵣⵜ) Venter & Neuland, NEPAD and the African Renaissance (2005), p. 16
  5. (ⵙ ⵜⵏⴳⵍⵉⵣⵜ) Names of countries, Decret and Fantar, 1981.
  6. 6.0 6.1 (ⵙ ⵜⵏⴳⵍⵉⵣⵜ) Geo. Babington Michell, "The Berbers", Journal of the Royal African Society, Vol. 2, No. 6 (January 1903), pp. 161–94.
  7. (ⵙ ⵜⵏⴳⵍⵉⵣⵜ) Edward Lipinski, Itineraria Phoenicia, Peeters Publishers, 2004, p. 200. ISBN 90-429-1344-4
  8. (ⵙ ⵜⵏⴳⵍⵉⵣⵜ) "Consultsos.com etymology"
  9. (ⵙ ⵜⵏⴳⵍⵉⵣⵜ) in Revue de Philologie 50, 1976: pp. 221–38.
  10. ⴷⵔⴰⵢⴷⵉⵍ, ⴰⵍⵉⵙⴷⴰⵢ & ⴱⵍⵉⴽ ⵊⵉⵔⴰⵍⴷ. (1985) ⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ ⵏ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⴷ ⵓⴳⵎⵓⴹ ⴰⵏⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ, ⵜⴰⵎⵙⵉⴳⴳⵣⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵙⴷⴰⵡⵉⵜ ⵓⴽⵙⴼⵓⵔⴷ ⴳ ⵉⵡⵓⵏⴰⴽ ⵉⵎⵓⵏⵏ ISBN 0-19-503538-0.
  11. Atlas - Xpeditions @ nationalgeographic.com National Geographic Society. 2003
  12. ⵡⵉⵏ ⵉⴼⴰⵏⵣ. (1924) ⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ, ⴽⵍⴰⵔⵉⵏⴷⵓⵏ ⵉ ⵜⵖⵎⵙⴰ
  13. ISBN 0-87779-546-0.
  14. ⵀⵓⵡⵔ ⴱⵉⵏ. (2002) ⵜⴰⴳⵔⵓⵎⵙⵏⴰ ⴽⵉⵏⴳⴼⵉⵛⵔ ⵙⴳ ⵢⴰ ⴰⵔ ⵢⴰⵣ ⵜⵉⴳⵎⵎⵉ ⵏ ⵓⵥⵔⴰⴳ ⴽⵉⵏⴳⴼⵉⵛⵔ. ⵜⴰⵙⵏⴰ 11 ISBN 0-7534-5569-2.
  15. ⵔⵉⵜⵛⴰⵔⴷ ⵙⴰⵏⴷⴱⵔⵓⴽ, ⵜⵉⵙⵔⵜⵉⵜⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵜⴹⵓⵔⵉ ⵏ ⵜⴷⵎⵙⴰ ⵜⴰⵡⴼⵜⵉⴽⵜ, ⵜⴰⵎⵙⵉⴳⴳⵣⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵙⴷⴰⵡⵉⵜ ⴽⴰⵎⴱⵔⵉⴷⵊ. 1985 ⴰⵎⴰⵍⴰⵙ
  16. http://hdr.undp.org/, ⵜⵉⵎⵜⵜⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵉⵎⵓⵏⵏ, ⵜⵉⵎⵃⴹⵉⵜ 16-03-2018
  17. "ⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ". ⵢⵓⵏⵉⵙⴽⵓ. 2005
  18. "Khoisan Languages". The Language Gulper. 27 ⵉⵏⵏⴰⵢⵔ 2017.
  19. "ⴰⵙⴳⴷ ⴳ ⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ". 09-05-2008
  20. "Rising Muslim Power in Africa Causing Unrest in Nigeria and Elsewhere". Normitsu Onishi. The New York Times Company. 09-03-2009


ⵉⵎⵏⵥⴰⵡⵏ
ⵜⴰⴼⵔⵉⵇⵜ ⴰⵏⵜⴰⵔⴽⵜⵉⴽⴰ ⵜⴰⵣⵉⵜ ⵓⵚⵟⵕⴰⵍⵢⴰ ⵜⵓⵕⵓⴱⵜ ⵜⴰⵎⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵏ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵏ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ
ⵜⴰⴼⵔⵓⵕⴰⵣⵉⵜ ⵜⴰⵎⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵜⵓⵕⴰⵣⵉⵜ ⵜⵓⵚⵢⴰⵏⵉⵜ