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ⵍⵉⵄⵉⵥⴰⵔ ⴱⵏ ⵢⴰⵀⵓⴷⴰ

ⵙⴳ ⵡⵉⴽⵉⴱⵉⴷⵢⴰ
ⴱⵏ ⵢⴰⵀⵓⴷⴰ ⴳ ⵜⵡⵓⵔⵉ ⵏⵏⵙ

ⵉⵍⵉⵄⵉⵥⴰⵔ ⴱⵏ ⵢⴰⵀⵓⴷⴰ (7 ⵢⵏⵏⴰⵢⵔ 1858 – 16 ⴷⵓⵊⴰⵏⴱⵉⵔ 1922)

ⵜⴰⵔⵉⴷⵉⵔⵜ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵉⵍⵓⵍ ⴷ ⵙ ⵢⵉⵙⵎ ⵏ ⵉⵍⵉⵄⵉⵥⴰⵔ ⵉⵙⵃⴰⵇ ⴱⵉⵔⵍⵎⴰⵏ ⵉⵍⵢⴰⵏⵓⴼ ⴳ ⵜⴱⵔⵡⴰⵏⴽⵜ ⵏ ⵔⵓⵙⵢⴰ (ⴱⵉⵍⴰⵔⵓⵙⵢⴰ ⴷⵖⵉ), ⴰⵙⴳⴳⴰⵙ ⵏ 1858, ⴳ ⵓⴳⵏⵙⵓ ⵏ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵡⴰⵛⵓⵏⵜ ⵜⵓⴷⴰⵢⵜ ⵜⴰⵃⴰⵙⵉⴷⵉⵜ (ⵜⴰⵔⴰⴷⵉⴽⴰⵍⵉⵜ) ⵉⵙⴰⵡⴰⵍⵏ ⵙ ⵜⵢⵉⴷⵉⵛⵜ ⵉⵎⵎⵓⵜ ⴱⴰⴱⴰⵙ ⵍⵍⵉⴳ ⵉⵍⴽⵎ ⵙⵎⵎⵓⵙ ⵉⵙⴳⴳⴰⵙⵏ, ⵜⴰⵊⵊ ⵜ ⵢⵉⵎⵎⴰⵙ ⴰⴽⴷ ⵅⴰⵍⵉⵙ; ⵉⵣⵣⵔⵉ ⵜⴰⵎⵥⵉⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵣⵓⵏ ⴷ ⴰⴽⴽ ⵉⵏⴳⴳⵯⴰ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵓⴷⴰⵢⵏ ⴳ ⵜⵖⵔⵉ ⴷ ⵓⵍⵎⵎⵓⴷ ⵏ ⵉⴷⵍⵉⵙⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵙⴳⴷ ⵓⴷⴰⵢ (ⵜⴰⵡⵔⴰⵜ, ⵎⵉⵛⵏⴰ ⴷ ⵓⵜⵍⵎⵓⴷ), ⵉⵍⵎⵎⴰ ⵉⵍⵎⴷ ⵜⴰⴼⵔⴰⵏⵙⵉⵙⵜ, ⵜⴰⵍⵉⵎⴰⵏⵜⵜⵔⵓⵙⵉⵜ, ⴰⵢⵍⵍⵉ ⵜ ⵢⵓⵊⵊⴰⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵉⴽⵛⵎ ⴷ ⵓⵎⵓⵙⵙⵓ ⴰⵚⵀⵢⵓⵏⵉ, ⵢⴰⴼ ⵏⵏ ⴷⵉⴳⵙ ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ ⴰⵙⵙⵓⴷⵔ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵜ ⵜⴰⵄⵉⴱⵔⵉⵜ ⴳ ⵡⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⵏ ⵉⵙⵔⴰⵢⵉⵍ ⴰ ⵔⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⵎⵓⵏ ⵇⴰⵃ ⵓⴷⴰⵢⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵎⴰⴹⴰⵍ.

ⴱⴰⵔⵉⵣ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵉⵣⵣⵔⵉ ⴱⵏ ⵢⴰⵀⵓⴷⴰ ⴽⴽⵓⵥ ⵉⵙⴳⴳⴰⵙⵏ ⴳ ⴱⴰⵔⵉⵣ, ⵉⵖⵔ ⵜⴰⵙⵏⵉⵊⵊⵉⵜⵜⵙⴷⴰⵡⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵚⵓⵔⴱⵓⵏ, ⵉⵖⵔ ⴰⵍⵜⵓ ⴰⵎⵣⵔⵓⵢⵜⵙⵔⵜⵉⵜⵓⴳⵎⵓⴹ ⴰⵏⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ. ⵢⴰⵏ ⵡⴰⵙⵙ, ⵉⵎⵎⴰⴳⴳⴰⵔ ⵍⵉⵄⵉⵥⴰⵔ ⴷ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵡⵓⴷⴰⵢ ⵙⴳ ⵢⵉⵔⵓⵛⴰⵍⴰⵢⵉⵎ (ⵍⵇⵓⴷⵙ), ⵉⵙⴰⵡⵍ ⴷⵉⴷⵙ ⵙ ⵜⵄⵉⴱⵔⵉⵜ; ⴰⵙⵙⵎⵔⵙ ⴰⴷ ⵏ ⵜⵄⵉⴱⵔⵉⵜ ⴳ ⵡⴰⵡⴰⵍ, ⴰⴷ ⵜ ⵉⵙⵙⵏⵥⴰⵏ ⵎⴰⵙ ⵜⵣⵎⵔ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵜ ⴰⴷ ⴰⴷ ⴷ ⵜⴷⵡⵍ ⵙ ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ, ⵜⴳ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵜ ⵏ ⵓⵖⵔⴼ ⴰⵡⵉⵙⵔⴰⵢⵉⵍ.

ⵢⵉⵔⵓⵛⴰⵍⵢⵉⵎ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⴰⵙ ⵏ 1881, ⵉⵣⵓⴳ ⴱⵏ ⵢⴰⵀⵓⴷⴰ ⵏⵜⵜⴰ ⴷ ⵜⵎⵟⵟⵓⴹⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵜⴰⵎⵣⵡⴰⵔⵓⵜ (ⵉⴳⴰⵏ ⵜⴰⵙⵍⵎⴰⴷⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵔⵓⵙⵉⵢⵜ) ⵙ ⵢⵉⵔⵓⵛⴰⵍⴰⵢⵉⵎ ⴳ ⴼⴰⵍⴰⵙⵟⵉⵏ ⵜⴰⵄⵓⵜⵎⴰⵏⵉⵜ; ⵔⴰⴷ ⴷⵉⵏⵏ ⵉⴼⵙⵔ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵍⵖⵓ ⵏⵏⴰ ⴳ ⴷⴰ ⵉⵜⵜⵉⵏⵉ ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ ⵉⵇⵇⴰⵏ ⵜⴰⵄⵉⴱⵔⵉⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵜⴳ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵉⵏⵎⴰⵍ ⵏ ⵜⵎⴰⵣⵉⵔⵜ; ⵉⵎⵉⴽⴽ, ⵔⴰⴷ ⵉⵍⵎⵎⴰ ⵉⴳ ⴰⵙⵍⵎⴰⴷ ⵏ ⵜⵄⵉⴱⵔⵉⵜ ⴳ ⵜⵉⵏⵎⵍ ⵏ ⵓⵎⵓⵍⵍⵉ ⴰⵡⵉⵙⵔⴰⵢⵍ ⴰⵖⵣⵓⵔⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵢⵉⵔⵓⵛⴰⵍⴰⵢⵉⵎ (ⴰⵔ ⵉⵙⵙⵍⵎⴰⴷ ⵜⴰⵄⵉⴱⵔⵉⵜ ⵙ ⵜⵄⵉⴱⵔⵉⵜ, ⵙⵔⵉⴷ, ⵎⵉⵏ ⴰⵙⵓⵖⵍ), ⵉⵎⵉⴽⴽ ⴷⴰⵖ ⵔⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⵏⵓⵍⴼⵓ ⴽⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵙⵎⵓⵏⵉⵏ (ⵣⵓⵏ ⴷ “ⵜⵉⵅⵢⴰⵜ ⵉⵙⵔⴰⵢⵉⵍ”, “ⵛⴰⴼⴰ ⴱⵉⵔⵓⵔⴰ” ⴷ “ⴱⴰ ⴰⴷ ⵀⴰⵍⴰⵛⵓⵏ”), ⵓⵙⴽⵔ ⴰⵡⴷ ⵜⴰⴽⴰⴷⵉⵎⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵜ ⵜⴰⵄⵉⴱⵔⵉⵜ (ⵜⵙⵓⵍ ⵜⵍⵍⴰ ⴰⵔ ⴰⵙⵙⴰ), ⴰⴼⴰⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⵙⴽⵜⵔ ⵏⵜⵜⴰ ⴷ ⵉⵎⴰⵙⵙⴰⵏⵏ ⵢⴰⴹⵏⵉⵏ ⵜⴰⵄⵉⴱⵔⵉⵜ ⵙ ⵢⵉⵔⵎⴰⵡⵏ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵓⵔ ⴷⵉⴳⵙ ⵍⵍⵉⵏⵉⵏ.

ⴳ ⵜⴰⴷⴷⴰⵔⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⵉⵛⵕⴹ ⵉⵍⵉⵄⵉⵥⴰⵔ ⵖⴼ ⵜⵎⵖⴰⵔⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴰⴷ ⵙⴰⵔ ⵙⵓⵍ ⵓⵔ ⵙⴰⵡⵍⵏ ⴽⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵜ ⴰⵎⵔ ⵜⴰⵄⵉⴱⵔⵉⵜ, ⵎⵇⵇⴰⵔ ⵉⵙⴰⵔ ⵓⵢⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵙⴰⵔⵏ; ⵢⴰⵏ ⵡⴰⵙⵙ ⵢⵓⴼⴰ ⵏⵏ ⵜⴰⵎⵟⵟⵓⴹⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴰⵔ ⵜⴻⵜⵜⵖⵏⵏⴰⵊ ⵉ ⵎⴻⵎⵎⵉⵙ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵣⵍⵉⵜ ⵜⴰⵔⵓⵙⵉⵢⵜ, ⵉⴱⵕⵕⵎ ⵏⵉⵜ ⴳⵉⵙ, ⵢⵉⵏⵉ ⴰⵙ ⴰⴷ ⵙⴰⵔ ⵙⵓⵍ ⵓⵔ ⵜⴰⵍⵙ ⵉ ⵜⵉⴳⴰⵡⵜ ⴰⵏⵏ. ⵍⵍⵉⴳ ⴰⵙ ⵜⵎⵎⵓⵜ ⵜⵎⵟⵟⵓⴹⵜ ⴰⴷ (ⴷⵉⴱⵓⵔⴰ) ⵙ ⵡⴰⵟⵟⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵔⵉⵏ, ⵜⵓⵊⵊⴰ ⴰⵙ 5 ⵉⴳⵓⴳⵉⵍⵏ, ⵎⵎⵜⵏ ⵙⵉⴳⵙⵏ ⴽⵔⴰⴹ ⵙ ⵡⴰⵟⵟⴰⵏ ⵏ ⴷⵉⴼⵜⵉⵔⵢⴰ, ⵉⴽⴽ ⵚⴹⵉⵙ ⵡⴰⵢⵢⵓⵔⵏ ⵢⴰⵡⵍ ⵅⴰⵍⵜⵉⵙ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵔⵔⴰⵡⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ; ⵅⵉⵎⴷⴰ.

ⵉⵙⴰⵖⵓⵍⵏ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]