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ⵄⵙⵙⵓ ⵓ ⴱⴰⵙⵍⴰⵎ

ⵙⴳ ⵡⵉⴽⵉⴱⵉⴷⵢⴰ
ⵄⵙⵙⵓ ⵓⴱⴰⵙⵍⴰⵎ
ⵉⵏⵖⵎⵉⵙⵏ ⵓⴷⵎⴰⵡⴰⵏⵏ
ⵜⴰⵍⴰⵍⵉⵜ 1890
ⵇⵚⵕ ⵜⴰⵖⵢⴰ, ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ
ⵜⴰⵎⵜⵜⴰⵏⵜ 16 ⵖⵓⵛⵜ 1960
ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ
ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵜⴰⵣⵣⵓⵍⴰⵏⵜ
ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵜ ⵜⴰⵢⵎⵎⴰⵜ ⵜⴰⵛⵍⵃⵉⵜ

ⵄⵙⵙⵓ ⵓ ⴱⴰⵙⵍⴰⵎ ⴰⵏⵣⴱⴰⵢ ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ ⴰⵛⵍⵃⵉⴰⵢⵜ ⵄⵟⵟⴰ ⵎⴳⴰⵍ ⴼⵕⴰⵏⵚⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⵀⴰⵔⵙⴰⵏⵜ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⵏ 1934. ⵉⵍⵓⵍ ⴳ ⵓⴷⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵙⴰⵖⵔⵓ ⴰⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⵏ 1890, ⵉⵎⵎⵓⵜ ⴳ 1960[1]. ⴰⵙⵙⴰⵖ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵏ ⵜⵉⴷⵜ ⵄⵉⵙⴰ ⵓ ⵄⵍⵉ ⵏ ⴰⵢⵜ ⴱⴰⵙⵍⴰⵎ. ⵢⴰⵎⵓ ⴳ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⵏ ⴱⵓⴳⴰⴼⵔ. ⵏⵜⵜⴰ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵏⵏⴰ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵡⴰⵡⴰⵍ : "ⵓⵙⵉⵖ ⴰⵙⵙ ⵉⵎⵔⵉⴳⵏ, ⴰⴼ ⴰⴷ ⴰⵙⵉⵏ ⵡⴰⵔⵔⴰⵡ ⵏⵏⵖ ⵉⵖⵓⵏⴰⴱ".

ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵉⵍⵓⵍ ⵄⴰⵙⵙⵓ ⵓⴱⴰⵙⵍⴰⵎ ⴳ ⵜⵖⵔⵎⵜ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵖⵢⴰ ⴳ ⵜⵙⴳⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵉⵏⵖⵉⵔ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙ ⵏ 1890 ⴷ ⵜⵍⴽⵎ ⵏ ⵜⵍⴰⵍⵉⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵙ ⵜⵓⵚⴽⴰ ⵏ ⵓⵎⵓⵍⵍⵉ ⵏ ⵏⴰⵢⵜ ⵄⵜⵜⴰ, ⵉⴳⴰⵏ ⴰⵎⵓⵍⵍⵉ ⵍⵍⵉ ⴳ ⵍⵍⴰⵏ ⴽⵉⴳⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵉⴳⴷⵓⴷⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ ⴰⴼⴰⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵙⴱⴷⴷⵏⴷ ⵉⵎⵣⵏⴰⵖⵏ ⴰⴼⵕⴰⵏⵚⵉⵚ. ⵉⵙⵎⴷ ⵜⴰⵔⵡⴰ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴳ ⵜⵔⴰⴱⴱⵓⵜ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵍⵛⴰⵏ, ⵉⵙⵎⴷ ⵄⵙⵙⵓ ⵓⴱⴰⵙⵍⴰⵎ ⴳ ⵜⵎⵙⵎⵓⵏⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵇⴱⵓⵔⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵔⴰⴱⴱⵓⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⴳ ⵉⵍⵍⴰ ⴱⴰⴱⴰⵙ ⵓⵎⵙⵙⴰⵏⵓⵏ, ⵢⵓⵎⵥ ⵙⴳ ⵜⴰⵔⵡⴰ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴰⵜⵉⴳⵏ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵖⴰⵔⴰ, ⵜⵉⵔⴳⵣⴰ, ⵜⵉⴷⵜ, ⴷ ⵓⵙⵙⵍⵎⴷ ⵏ ⵉⵎⴰⵏ ⴷ ⵜⵏⵙⵙⵉⵅⴼⵜ, ⵉⵜⵜⵓⵙⵜⴰ ⴰⴷ ⵉⴳ ⴰⵏⵙⵙⵉⵅⴼ ⵏ ⵜⵔⴰⴱⴱⵓⵜ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵍⵛⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙ ⵏ 1919.

ⵜⴽⵛⵎ ⴼⵕⴰⵏⵚⴰ ⵖⵔ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⴳ 1912, ⵜⴽⵛⵎ ⴳ ⵓⵎⵏⵏⵓⵖ ⵏ ⵉⴳⴷⵓⴷⵏ ⵏ ⴰⵢⵜ ⵄⵜⵜⴰ, ⴷ ⵜⴱⴷⴰ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵙⴳⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵢⵏⵓⵜ ⴳ ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵄⵙⵙⵓ ⵓⴱⴰⵙⵍⴰⵎ ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⵉⵜⵜⵓⵙⵜⴰ ⴰⴷ ⵉⴳ ⵓⵏⵙⵙⵉⵅⴼ ⴰⵎⴰⵜⴰⵢ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵊⴰⵀⴷⵏ. ⵉⴳⴰ ⵄⵙⵙⵓ ⵓⴱⴰⵙⵍⴰⵎ ⵏ ⵜⴳⴳⴰⵍⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵍⴰⴼⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⴳⵍⴷⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵎⵕⵚⴰⴹ, ⴳ ⵎⴰⵏ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⵎⴳⴰⵍ ⵏⵏⵙⵏⵜ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⵉⵛⵇⵇⴰⵏ, ⴷ ⵉⵖ ⵉⴳⴰ ⵡⵉⵏ ⴱⵓⴳⴰⴼⵔ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙ ⵏ 1933, ⴳ ⵎⴰⵏ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⴱⵓⴳⴰⴼⵔ ⵙ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⴳⵔⴰⵡ ⵏ 83.000 ⵏ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⴰⵏⵏ, ⴷ ⵉⵇⵇⵉⵎ ⵓⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⴰⴷ 40 ⵏ ⵡⴰⵙⵙ ⴳⵔ ⵡⴰⵢⵢⵓⵔ ⵏ ⴱⵕⴰⵢⵕⵎⴰⵕⵚ.

ⵡⴰⵅⵅⴰ ⴷ ⵍⵍⴰⵏⵜ ⵜⵔⴰⴱⴱⵓⵜⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵅⴰⵜⴰⵔⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵡⵓⵟⵟⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵏⵏⵉⵜⵏ ⴷ ⵉⵎⴰⵙⵙⵏ ⴷ ⵉⵙⴳⴳⴰⵙⵏ, ⵎⴰⵛⴰ ⵉⵎⵏⵏⵉⵜⵏ ⵉⵛⵇⵇⴰⵏ ⵙⴱⴷⴷⵏⴷ ⵜⴰⵣⵣⵉⴳⵣⵜ ⵏ ⵉⴼⵔⴰⵏⵙⵉⵙⵏ, ⵙ ⵓⵙⵎⵔⵙ ⵏ ⵓⵖⴰⵔⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵓⴷⵔⴰⵔ ⴳ ⵜⵎⵏⴰⴹⵜ, ⴷ ⵜⴰⵣⵣⵉⴳⵣⵜ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵓⵙⵙⵓⵜⵏ ⵏⵏⵙⵏ ⴷ ⵉⴼⵔⴷⵉⵙⵏ ⵏ ⵎⴰⵢⴰⴷ ⵢⵓⵊⵊⴰⵏ ⵉⴼⵕⴰⵏⵚⴰⵡⵉⵢⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵙⵙⵎⵔⴰⵙⵏⵜ ⵜⵉⴱⵔⵉⴷⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵣⵎⵔⵜ ⴰⴼⴰⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵙⴱⵖⵔⵏ ⵉⵎⵓⵊⴰⵀⴷⵉⵢ ⵏⵖ, ⵔⴰⴷ ⵜⵎⵖⴰⵔⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵉⵎⵥⵢⴰⵏⵏ, ⵎⴰⵛⴰ ⵄⴰⵙⵙⵓ ⵓⴱⴰⵙⵍⴰⵎ ⴷ ⵓⴽⴰⴱⴰⵕ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵓⵔ ⵙⴱⵖⵔⵏ, ⵥⴹⴰⵕⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵙⴱⵖⵔⵏ ⵅⴼ ⵜⴰⴳⴳⴰⵍⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵍⴰⴼⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵅⴰⵜⴰⵔⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵣⵎⵣ ⴰⴷ, ⵔⴰⴷ 3,500 ⵏ ⵉⵎⵙⵔⴷⴰⵙⵏ ⴷ ⵎⵏⵏⴰⵡ ⵏ ⵉⴼⵔⴷⵉⵙⵏ.

ⵜⴽⵛⵎ ⴼⵕⴰⵏⵚⴰ ⵖⵔ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⴳ 1912, ⵜⴽⵛⵎ ⴳ ⵓⵎⵏⵏⵓⵖ ⵏ ⵉⴳⴷⵓⴷⵏ ⵏ ⴰⵢⵜ ⵄⴰⵜⴰ, ⴷ ⵜⴱⴷⴰ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵙⴳⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵢⵏⵓⵜ ⴳ ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵄⵙⵙⵓ ⵓⴱⵙⵍⴰⵎ ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⵉⵜⵜⵓⵙⵜⴰ ⴰⴷ ⵉⴳ ⵓⵏⵙⵙⵉⵅⴼ ⴰⵎⴰⵜⴰⵢ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵓⵊⴰⵀⴷⵉⵏ.

ⵜⴰⵔⵡⴰ ⵏⵏⵙ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵉⵙⵎⴷ ⵜⴰⵔⵡⴰ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴳ ⵜⵔⴰⴱⴱⵓⵜ ⵏ ⴰⵎⵍⵛⴰⵏ, ⵉⵙⵎⴷ ⵄⵙⵙⵓ ⵓⴱⵙⵍⴰⵎ ⴳ ⵜⵎⵙⵎⵓⵏⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵇⴱⵓⵔⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵔⴰⴱⴱⵓⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⴳ ⵉⵍⵍⴰ ⴱⴰⴱⴰⵙ ⴰⵎⵙⵙⴰⵏⵓⵏ, ⵢⵓⵎⵥ ⵙⴳ ⵜⴰⵔⵡⴰ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴰⵜⵉⴳⵏ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵖⴰⵔⴰ, ⵜⵉⵔⴳⴰ, ⵜⵉⴷⵜ, ⴷ ⵓⵙⵙⵍⵎⴷ ⵏ ⵉⵎⴰⵏ ⴷ ⵜⵏⵙⵙⵉⵅⴼⵜ, ⵉⵜⵜⵓⵙⵜⴰ ⴰⴷ ⵉⴳ ⴰⵏⵙⵙⵉⵅⴼ ⵏ ⵜⵔⴰⴱⴱⵓⵜ ⵏ ⴰⵎⵍⵛⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙ ⵏ 1919.

ⴰⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⵏ ⴱⵓⴳⴰⴼⵔ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵖ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⵏ 1933, ⵖ 13 ⴼⴱⵔⴰⵢⵔ ⵉⴱⴷⴰ ⵓⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⴳⵔ ⵉⵏⵣⴱⴰⵢⵏ (ⵍⵎⵓⵇⴰⵡⵉⵎⵉⵏ) ⴷⴷⵓ ⵍⵇⵢⴰⴷⴰ ⵏ ⵄⵙⵙⵓ ⵓ ⴱⴰⵙⵍⴰⵎ ⴷ ⵉⵇⵟⵟⴰⵄⵏ ⵏ ⴼⵕⴰⵏⵚⴰ ⴷ ⵡⵉⵍⵍⵉ ⴰⵙⵏ ⵉⵜⵜⴰⵡⵙⵏ ⴼ ⵉⵥⵥⴰ ⵍⴳⵍⴰⵡⵉⵢⵉⵏ. ⵉⵜⵜⵢⵓⵙⵙⴰⵏ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⴰⴷ ⵙ ⵢⵉⵙⵎ ⵏ ⴱⵓⴳⴰⴼⵔ, ⵜⴱⴷⴰ ⵖ 13 ⴼⵉⴱⵔⴰⵢⵔ 1933, ⵜⴽⵎⵎⵍ ⴰⵙⵙ ⵏ 25 ⵎⴰⵔⵙ ⵖ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⴰⵏⵏ ⵏⵉⵜ, 46 ⵡⴰⵙⵙ ⴰⴷ ⵜⴽⴽⴰ, ⵙⴱⴰⵢⵢⵏⵏ ⴳⵉⵙ ⵉⵔⴳⴰⵣⵏ ⵏ ⴰⵢⵜ ⵄⵟⵟⴰ ⵜⵉⵔⵔⵓⴳⵣⴰ ⵏⵏⵙⵏ ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⴳⴰⵏ ⵇⴱⵍ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⴽⵔⴰ ⵏ 7000 ⵏ ⵢⴰⵏ ⴷ ⵉⵇⵟⵟⴰⵄⵏ ⵏ ⴼⵕⴰⵏⵚⴰ ⴽⵔⴰ ⵏ 38 000 ⴳⵉⵏ ⴹⴹⵓⴱⵍ ⵏⵏⵙⵏ ⵙ ⵎⵔⴰⵡ ⵜⵉⴽⴽⴰⵍ, ⵜⵣⴰⵢⴷⵜ ⴰⵙⵏ ⵉⵙ ⴷ ⵉⵇⵟⵟⴰⵄⵏ ⵏ ⴼⵕⴰⵏⵚⴰ ⵙⵜⵄⵎⵍⵏ ⴷⴱⴰⴱⴰⵜ ⴷ ⵙⵍⴰⵃ ⴰⵎⴰⵢⵏⵓ, ⴷ ⵜⵓⴳⴳⵜ ⵏⵏⵙⵏ ⵖⵔⴰⵏ ⵖ ⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ-ⴽⴰⵜⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵉⵏⵎⴰⵍ ⵏ ⵍⵄⵙⴽⴻⵔ. ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⵥⵔⴰⵏ ⵉⵇⵟⵟⴰⵄⵏ ⵏ ⴼⵕⴰⵏⵚⴰ ⵉⴳⵓⵢⵢⴰ ⵏⵏⵙⵏ ⵅⵙⴻⵔⵏ ⵏⵀⵊⵏ ⵎⴰ ⵎⵉ ⵏⵜⵜⵉⵏⵉ ⵙⵢⴰⵙⴰ ⵏ ⵡⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⵉⵃⵔⴳⵏ, ⴰⵔ ⵃⵔⴳⵏ ⴰⵔ ⵜⴱⴱⵉⵏ ⵜⴰⴷⴷⴰⴳⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵍⵍⵓⵣ ⴷ ⵓⵣⵎⵎⵓⵔ ⴰⵔ ⵏⵇⵇⴰⵏ ⵖ ⵎⵉⴷⴷⵏ ⴷ ⵜⵎⵖⴰⵔⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵜⴰⵣⵣⴰⵏⵉⵏ, ⵎⴰ ⵉⵎⵥⵥⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵎⴰ ⵉⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏ ⴳⵉⵙⵏ 4000 ⵏ ⵎⵉⴷⴷⵏ ⴷ 700 ⵏⴳⵔ ⵍⵎⵓⵇⴰⵡⵉⵎⵉⵏ, ⴰⵎⵎⴰ ⵉⵇⵟⵟⴰⵄⵏ ⵏ ⴼⵕⴰⵏⵚⴰ ⵎⵎⵓⵜⵏ ⴳⵉⵙⵏ 3500 ⵉⵇⵟⵟⴰⵄⵏ ⴳⵉⵙⵏ ⵍⵊⵉⵏⵉⵔⴰⵍⴰⵜ ⴷ ⵡⵉⵢⵢⴰⴹ ⵏⵏⴰ ⴷⴰⵔ ⵜⵍⵍⴰ ⵜⵡⴰⵙⵙⵏⴰ ⵖ ⵣⵓⵏ ⴷ ⴰⵏⴰⵡ ⴰⴷ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⵉⵜⵏ. ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⵉⵥⵔⴰ ⵄⵙⵙⵓ ⵓ ⴱⴰⵙⵍⴰⵎ ⴼⵕⴰⵏⵚⴰ ⵔⴰⴷ ⵜⵏⵖ ⴽⵓⵍⵍⵓ ⴰⵢⵜ ⵜⵎⴰⵣⵉⵔⵜ ⵉⵇⴱⵍ ⵙⵉⵙ ⵉⵙⵜⵙⵍⵎ ⵉⵜⵜⴼⴰⵡⴹ ⴷⵉⵙⵏ ⴼⴽⴰⵏ ⴰⵙ ⴽⵔⴰⵏ ⵛⵛⵓⵔⵓⵟ ⴳⴰⵏⵜ ⴽⵓⵍⵍⵓ ⵖ ⵚⵚⴰⵍⵉⵃ ⵏ ⵜⵇⴱⵉⵍⵜ ⵏ ⴰⵢⵜ ⵄⵟⵟⴰ.

ⵉⴳⴰ ⵄⵙⵙⵓ ⵓⴱⵙⵍⴰⵎ ⵏ ⵜⴳⴳⴰⵍⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵍⴰⴼⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⴳⵍⴷⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵎⵕⵚⴰⴹ, ⴳ ⵎⴰⵏ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⵎⴳⴰⵍ ⵏⵏⵙⵏⵜ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⵉⵛⵇⵇⴰⵏ, ⴷ ⵉⵖ ⵉⴳⴰ ⵡⵉⵏ ⴱⵓⴳⴰⴼⵔ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙ ⵏ 1933, ⴳ ⵎⴰⵏ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⴰⴱⵓⴳⴰⴼⵔ ⵙ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⴳⵔⴰⵡ ⵏ 83.000 ⵏ ⵉⵎⵙⵖⴰⵏⵏ, ⴷ ⵉⵇⵇⵉⵎ ⵓⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⴰⴷ 40 ⵏ ⵡⴰⵙⵙ ⴳⵔ ⵡⴰⵢⵢⵓⵔ ⵏ ⴱⵕⴰⵢⵕ ⴷ ⵎⴰⵕⵚ. ⵡⴰⵅⵅⴰ ⴷ ⵍⵍⴰⵏⵜ ⵜⵔⴰⴱⴱⵓⵜⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵅⴰⵜⴰⵔⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵡⵓⵟⵟⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⵉⵢⵏ ⴷ ⵉⵎⴰⵙⵙⵏ ⴷ ⵉⵙⴳⴳⴰⵙⵏ, ⵎⴰⵛⴰ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⵉⵢⵏ ⵉⵛⵇⵇⴰⵏ ⵙⴱⵉⴷⴷⵏ ⵜⴰⵣⵣⵉⴳⵣⵜ ⵏ ⵉⴼⵔⴰⵏⵙⵉⵙⵏ, ⵙ ⵓⵙⵎⵔⵙ ⵏ ⵓⵖⴰⵔⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵓⴷⵔⴰⵔ ⴳ ⵜⵎⵏⴰⴹⵜ, ⴷ ⵜⴰⵣⵣⵉⴳⵣⵜ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵓⵙⵙⵓⵜⵏ ⵏⵏⵙⵏ ⴷ ⵉⴼⵔⴷⵉⵙⵏ. ⵎⴰⵢⴰⴷ ⵢⵓⵊⵊⴰⵏ ⵉⴼⵕⴰⵏⵚⴰⵡⵉⵢⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵙⵙⵎⵔⴰⵙⵏ ⵜⵉⴱⵔⵉⴷⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵣⵎⵔⵜ ⴰⴼⴰⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵙⵙⴱⵖⵔⵏ ⵉⵎⵓⵊⴰⵀⴷⵉⵢⵏ, ⵔⴰⴷⵏ ⵜⵎⵖⴰⵔⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵉⵎⵥⵢⴰⵏⵏ, ⵎⴰⵛⴰ ⵄⵄⵙⵙⵓ ⵓⴱⵙⵍⴰⵎ ⴷ ⵉⴽⴰⴱⴰⵕⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵓⵔ ⵙⵙⴱⵖⵔⵏ, ⵥⴹⴰⵕⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵙⵙⴱⵖⵔⵏ ⵅⴼ ⵜⴰⴳⴳⴰⵍⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵍⴰⴼⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵅⴰⵜⴰⵔⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵣⵎⵣ ⴰⴷ, ⵔⴰⴷⵏ 3,500 ⵏ ⵉⵎⵙⵔⴷⴰⵙⵏ ⴷ ⵎⵏⵏⴰⵡ ⵏ ⵉ: ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⵏ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵎⵏⵣⴰⵖ ⵉⵖⵣⵣⵉⴼⵏ ⴷ ⵜⵎⴰⴹⵓⵏⵜ ⵏ ⵙⵙⵉⴽⵔ, ⵉⵎⵎⵓⵜ ⵓⵎⵏⵣⴰⵖ ⴰⵎⵖⵔⴰⴱⵉ ⵄⵙⵙⵓ ⵓⴱⵙⵍⴰⵎ ⴰⵙⵙ ⵏ 16 ⵖⵓⵛⵜ 1960. ⵉⵜⵜⵓⵎⴹⵍ ⴳ ⵜⵇⴱⵔⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵣⵡⵓⵔⴰ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴳ ⵜⵔⴰⴱⴱⵓⵜ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵊⵢⴰ ⴰⵎⵍⵛⴰⵏ.

ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⵏ ⵓⴽⵙⴰⵢ ⴰⵅⴰⵜⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵜⵜⴰⵏⵜ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵣⴷⴰⵖⵏ, ⵜⵙⵙⵎⵔⴰⵙ ⵜⴳⴷⵓⴷⴰⵏⵜ ⵜⴰⵡⴰⵍⴰ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴷ ⵜⵙⵙⵎⵔⴰⵙ ⵜⴰⵡⴰⵍⴰ ⵏ ⵓⵣⵡⵓ ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⵏ ⵜⵙⵙⴰⵙⵜ ⵏ ⵡⴰⴽⴰⵍ, ⴷ ⵜⵙⵙⴽⵔ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵙⵓⴳⵉ ⵓⵔ ⵉⵃⵍⵉⵏ, ⴷ ⵜⵙⵙⴽⵜⵉⵏ ⴰⵜⵜⴰⵢⵏ ⵏ 4000 ⵏ ⵉⵎⵣⴷⴰⵖⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ ⵏ ⴰⵢⵜ ⵄⴰⵜⴰ, ⴷ ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⵉⵙⵙⵏ ⵓⵎⵖⵏⴰⵙ ⴰⵎⵖⵔⴰⴱⵉ ⵎⴰⵙ ⵔⴰⴷ ⵜⵜⵓⵙⵏⵖⴰⵙⵏ ⵉⵎⵣⴷⴰⵖⵏ ⵎⴽⵍⵍⵉ ⵙⵓⵍⵏ ⵜⵜⵓⵙⵓⴳⴰⵙⵏ, ⵉⵜⵜⵓⵖⵜⴰⵙ ⴰⴷ ⵉⴼⴼⵖ ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⵏ 40 ⵏ ⵡⴰⵙⵙ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⵉ, ⴷ ⵎⵎⵓⵜⵏ ⴳⵉⵙ 10.000 ⵏ ⵉⵎⵙⵔⴷⴰⵙⵏ ⵏ ⵓⴳⴷⵓⴷ ⴰⵎⵖⵔⴰⴱⵉ.

ⵜⵎⵜⵜⴰⵏⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⵏ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵎⵏⵣⴰⵖ ⵉⵖⵣⵣⵉⴼⵏ ⴷ ⵜⵎⴰⴹⵓⵏⵜ ⵏ ⵙⵙⵉⴽⵔ, ⵉⵎⵎⵓⵜ ⵓⵎⵏⵣⴰⵖ ⴰⵎⵖⵔⴰⴱⵉ ⵄⵙⵙⵓ ⵓⴱⵙⵍⴰⵎ ⴰⵙⵙ ⵏ 16 ⵖⵓⵛⵜ 1960.

ⵥⵕ ⴰⵡⴷ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵉⵙⴰⵖⵓⵍⵏ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

  1. Résistances para-nationales chez les Aït Sokhman et Aït Yafelman dans le Haut Atlas marocain (1929-1933)Michael Peyron