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ⵎⵓⵃⵎⵎⴰⴷ ⴰⵎⵣⵢⴰⵏ

ⵙⴳ ⵡⵉⴽⵉⴱⵉⴷⵢⴰ
ⵎⵓⵃⵎⵎⴰⴷ ⴰⵎⵣⵢⴰⵏ

ⵉⵏⵖⵎⵉⵙⵏ ⵓⴷⵎⴰⵡⴰⵏⵏ
ⵜⴰⵍⴰⵍⵉⵜ 1859
ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ
ⴰⵙⴰⴽⵓⴷ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵜⵜⴰⵏⵜ 1912 (52-52 ⵏ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ)
ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵜⴰⵣⵣⵓⵍⴰⵏⵜ
ⵜⴰⵏⴰⴼⵓⵜ ⵜⴰⵙⵔⴷⴰⵙⵜ

ⵎⵓⵃⵎⵎⴷ ⴰⵎⵣⵢⴰⵏ ⵉⴳⴰ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵙⴳ ⵉⴼⵔⴷⵉⵙⵏ ⵏ ⵎⴰⵙⵙ ⴰⵃⵎⴰⴷ ⵄⴱⴷ ⵙⴰⵍⴰⵎ ⵍⵇⴰⵍⵉ ⵔⵔⵉⴼⵉ ⴰⵎⵣⵢⴰⵏⵉ, ⵉⵍⵓⵍ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙ ⵏ 1859. ⵜⵙⵙⵏ ⵜⴰⵡⵊⴰ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵙⴳⴰ ⴳ ⴰⵣⵉⴳⴰⵏ ⵜⴰⵎⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵎⴷⵉⵏⵜ ⵏ ⵏⵥⵓⵕ, ⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵙⵙⴰⵏ ⵙ ⵜⵙⴳⴰ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵔⵔⴰⵡ ⵏ ⴰⵃⵎⴰⴷ ⵄⴱⴷ ⵙⴰⵍⴰⵎ ⵍⵇⵍⵄⵉ, ⵉⵙⵍⵎⴷ ⴳ ⵜⵎⵣⴳⵉⴷⴰ ⴰⵎⵎ ⵡⵉⵢⵢⴰⴹ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵔⵔⴰⵡ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⴳ ⵓⵣⵎⵣ ⴰⴷ, ⵉⵙⵡⵓⵔⵉ ⵙⴳ ⵜⵉⵣⵉ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵥⵥⵉ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴳ ⵜⵙⴱⴱⴰⴱⵜ, ⵙⵍⴰⵡⴰⵏ ⴰⴽⴽⵡ ⴳⵔ ⵡⴰⵔⵔⴰⵡ ⴷ ⵍⵣⵣⴰⵢⵔ, ⵢⵙⵙⵏ ⵙ ⵜⵖⴰⵔⴰⵙⵜ ⵉⵖⵓⴷⴰⵏ ⴷ ⵜⴰⴷⵔⵉⵎⵜ ⴷ ⵜⴰⵢⵔⵉ ⵏ ⵎⵉⴷⴷⵏ, ⴷ ⵜⵍⵍⴰ ⴷⵉⴳⵙ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵔⴰⴱⴱⵓⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵉⵏⴰⴼⵓⵜⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⴳⵍⴷⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵍⵉⵙⵜⵉⵇⵍⴰⵍ, ⴷ ⵜⴰⴷⵓⵙⵉ ⵏ ⵓⵎⵙⴰⵙⴰ, ⴷ ⵜⵣⵎⵎⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵓⵙⵏⵎⴰⵍⴰ, ⴷ ⵓⵎⵢⴰⵙⵙⴰ ⵏ ⵎⵉⴷⴷⵏ, ⴰⴽⴽⵡ ⵜⵉⵏⴰⴼⵓⵜⵉⵏ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵙⵎⵎⴰⵍⵏ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⴼⴳⴰⵏ ⵉⵖⵓⴷⴰⵏ. ⴷⴰ ⵜⵜⵎⵓⵜⵜⵓⵢⵏ ⵉⵔⴳⴰⵣⵏ ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⵔⵡⵍⵏ ⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⵏⵏⵙⵏ, ⴷ ⵙⴳ ⵜⴰⴳⴰⵏⵜ ⴰⵔ ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⴷⴰ ⵜⵜⵎⵓⵜⵜⵓⵢⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵏⵢⴰⵙ, ⴷⴰ ⵙⵙⵓⴷⵓⵏ ⵙ ⵍⵣⵣⴰⵢⵔ ⵃⵎⴰ ⴰⴷ ⵙⵡⵓⵔⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵉⵙⵏⵙⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵖⵔⴰⴱⵉⵢⵏ ⵉⴼⵕⴰⵏⵚⴰⵡⵉⵢⵏ, ⵉⴳⴰ ⵓⵎⵓⴷⴷⵓ ⵏⵏⵙⵏ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵉⵔⵎⵜ ⵉⵛⵇⵇⴰⵏ, ⵙⵡⴰ ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⵔⴰⴷ ⵙⵙⵓⴷⵓⵏ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵡⴰⵙⵉⴼ ⵉⵖⵣⵣⵉⴼⵏ ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⵥⴹⴰⵕⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵙⵙⵓⴷⵓⵏ ⴰⵎⴰⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⵏⵖⴷ ⵙ ⵡⴰⵟⵟⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵙⴱⴱⴰⴱⵏ ⵏ ⵓⴱⵔⵉⴷ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵜⵜⵎⵓⵜⵜⵓⵢⵏ, ⵙⵍⴰⵡⴰⵏ ⴰⴽⴽⵡ ⴳ ⵓⵣⵎⵣ ⵏ ⵓⴷⵡⴰⵍ, ⵃⵎⴰ ⴰⴷ ⵙⵙⵓⴷⵓⵏ ⵉⵔⴳⴰⵣⵏ ⵙⴳ ⵜⵡⵓⵔⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵏⵏⵙⵏ ⴳ ⵍⵣⵣⴰⵢⵔ, ⵙ ⵎⴰⵏⴰⵢⴰ ⴷⴰ ⵙⵙⵓⴷⵓⵏ ⴳ ⵜⵔⴰⴱⴱⵓⵜⵉⵏ, ⵣⵓⵏⴷ ⴽⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵡⴰⴷⴷⵓⵔ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵙⵙⵏ ⵜⴰⴱⵔⵉⴷⵜ ⴷ ⵎⴰⵎⴽ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⴽⵔ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵡⴰⵙ ⵎⵇⵇⴰⵔ ⵓⵔ ⵉⴽⵛⵎ ⴳ ⵓⵎⵣⴳⵓⵏ ⴰⵙⵔⴷⴰⵙⵉ ⴷ ⴰⵙⵔⵜⴰⵏ ⵅⴰⵙ ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⵉⵍⴽⵎ 50 ⵏ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙ, ⴰⵙⵖⵍ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴷ ⵜⴰⵡⵊⴰ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴳ ⵉⵇⴱⵉⵍⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵖⵔⵎⵜ ⵏ ⵓⴳⴰⴷⵉⵔ ⵉⵅⵚⵚⴰ ⴰⴷ ⵢⴰⴷⵔ ⵉⵎⵓⵙⵙⵓⵜⵏ ⵏ ⵓⴳⴷⵓⴷ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⵙⵍⴰⵡⴰⵏ ⴰⴽⴽⵡ ⵡⵉⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵣⴷⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⵎⴳⴰⵍ ⵚⴱⴰⵏⵢⴰ, ⵓⵔ ⵉⵖⵉⵢ ⴰⴷ ⵢⴰⴷⵔ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⵏ ⵓⴳⴰⴷⵉⵔ ⵏ 1893 ⵙ ⵜⵣⵔⴼⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵜⴰⴷⵙⵍⴰⵏⵜ ⴷ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⴰⵙⵔⵜⴰⵏ, ⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵇⵇⵉⵎ ⴱⵕⵕⴰ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⵏ ⵓⵙⴷⵓⵔⵔ. ⴰⵛⴽⵓ ⵓⵔ ⵉⵣⵎⵉⵔ ⵍⴰⵎⵣⵢⴰⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵢⴰⵡⴹ ⵖⴼ ⵡⵓⴷⴷⵓⵔ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵙⴰⵔⵉⵏ ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⵢⵓⵣⵏ ⴱⵓⵀⵎⵔⵔⴰ ⴳ ⵡⴰⵏⵙⵉⵡⵏ, ⵙⵍⴰⵡⴰⵏ ⴰⴽⴽⵡ ⴳ ⵉⵇⴱⵉⵍⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵢⵜ ⵍⵇⴰⵍⵢⴰ, ⴰⵔ ⵉⵜⵜⵎⴳⴰⵔⴷ ⴷ ⴰⵔ ⵉⵙⵎⵔⴰⵙ ⵉⵇⴱⵉⵍⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵎⵏⵖⴰⵙⵏ, ⵎⴰⵢⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⴷⴷⵉⴷ ⵓⵎⴰⵔⴰ ⵊⵔⵎⴰⵏ ⵄⴰⵢⵛ " ⵛⵛⵔⵉⴼ ⴰⵎⵣⵢⴰⵏ ⵉⴳⴰ ⵙⴳ ⵉⵎⵣⵡⵓⵔⴰ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵢⵙⵙⴼⵍⴷⵏ ⵉ ⵜⴷⵔⴰⵡⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵣⵔⵀⵓⵏⵉ (ⴱⵓⵀⵎⵔⵔⴰ) ⴰⴽⴷ ⵉⴱⵕⵕⴰⵏⵉⵢⵏ ⴷ ⵙⵡⵓⵔⵉⵏ ⴰⴼⴰⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵙⵙⴼⵙⵔⵏⵜ ", ⴰⵛⴽⵓ ⵉⴳⴰ ⵛⵔⵉⴼ ⴰⵎⵣⵢⴰⵏ ⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵉⵏⵙⵙⵉⵅⴼⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵇⴱⵉⵍⵏ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵢⵎⵓⵣⴰⵖⵏ ⴰⴼⴰⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵃⵟⵟⵓⵏ ⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⵏⵏⵙⵏ ⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵅⵜⵉⵏⵏ ⴰⴱⵓⵀⵎⵔⵓⵏⵉ ⵢⵓⵛⴽⴰⵏ ⴰⴼⴰⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵙⵙⵔⴽⵏ ⵉⵇⴱⵉⵍⵏ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵏⵙⵉⵡⵏ.

ⵉⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙⵏ ⵣ ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜⵏⵙ

[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]
  • ⵉⵍⵓⵍ ⵖ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙ ⵏ 1889
  • ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⴷⴰⵔⵙ ⵡⵉⵙ 27 ⵏ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙ ⵉⴼⵜⴰ ⵙ ⵉⵖⵔⵎ ⵏ ⴼⴰⵙ ⴱⴰⵛ ⴰⵢ ⴽⵎⵎⵍ ⵜⵉⵖⵔⵉⵏⵙ ⵏ ⴷⴷⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵜⵉⵎⴰⵙⵙⴰⵏⵉⵏ.
  • ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⴷⴰⵔⵙ ⵡⵉⵙ 31 ⵏ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙ ⵢⵓⵔⵔⵉⴷ ⵙ ⵔⵔⵉⴼ. ⴱⴰⵛ ⴰⵢⴳ ⵍⵇⴰⴹⵉ ⴰⵔ ⵉⴱⴹⵓ ⵎⵉⴷⴷⵏ ⵙ ⵛⴰⵔⵉⵄⴰ ⵍⵉⵙⵍⴰⵎ. ⵎⴰⵢⴰⴷ ⵔⴰ ⴳⵉⵙ ⵉⵙⴽⵔ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵖⵉ ⵉⴽⴰⴱⴰⵔⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵓⵇⵇⵔⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵙⴳⴰ ⵢⴰⴷ.

ⵖ ⵜⵉⵣⵉ ⵏ ⵙⴱⵍⵢⵓⵏ

[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⵜⴽⵛⵎ ⵙⴱⴰⵏⵢⴰ ⵉⴼⴰⵢⴰⵙⵏ ⴱⵓⵜⵖⵉⵢⵓⵍⵜ ⴰⵖⴰⵔⴰⵙ ⴰⴷ ⴱⴰⵛ ⴰⴷ ⵙⴽⵔⵏ ⴰⵖⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵛⵎⴰⵏ ⵍⵉ ⵔⴰ ⵢ ⵉⵣⴷⵉ ⵎⵍⵉⵍⵉⵢⴰ ⴷ ⵓⴷⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵓⴽⵙⵏ ⴱⴰⵛ ⴰⴷ ⵍⴽⵎⵏ ⵉⴳⵎⵎⴰⴹⵏ ⴷ ⵡⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⵍⵉ ⵖⵉⵍⵍⴰ ⵓⵣⵣⴰⵍ. ⵉⴳⵎⵎⴰⴹⵏⴰⴷ ⵍⵉ ⵉⵣⵣⵏⵣⴰ ⴱⵓⵜⵖⵉⵢⵓⵍⵜ ⵙⵢⴰⵏ ⵡⴰⵜⵉⴳ ⵓⵔ ⵉⵡⴰⵏ ⴰⵎⵢⴰ. ⵉⵙⵎⵓⵏ ⵎⵓⵃⵎⵎⴰⴷ ⴰⵎⵣⵢⴰⵏ ⵜⵇⴱⵉⵍⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵉⵔⴳⴰⵣⵏ ⵏ ⵔⵔⵉⴼ ⴱⴰⵛ ⴰⴷ ⵙⴱⵉⴷⵏ ⵜⴰⵡⵓⵔⵉ ⵢⴰⴷ ⵏⵙⴱⵍⵢⵓⵏ. ⵔⵥⵉⵏ ⵏⴰⵙⵏ ⵉⵎⴰⵙⵏ ⵟⴰⵢⵏ ⵏⴰⵙⵏ ⵉⵅⴷⴷⴰⵎⵏ.

ⴱⴰⵛ ⵜⴰⵣⴱⴰⵢⵜⴰⴷ ⴰⵜ ⵜⵉⵍⵉ ⴰⵜⵉⴳ, ⵎⵓⵃⵎⵎⴰⴷ ⴰⵎⵣⵢⴰⵏ ⵉⵙⵓⴼⴼ ⵖⵉ ⵉⵎⴷⴷⵓⴽⴽⴰⵍⵏⵙ ⵜⴰⵢⵔⵉ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⴷ ⵜⵉⴷⴷⵓⴽⵍⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵉⵇⴱⵉⵍⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵔⵔⵉⴼ ⴷ ⵡⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⵏ ⵜⵎⴰⵣⵉⵔⵜ.

ⵣ ⵔⵉⴷ ⴰ ⵉⵣⵉⵣⵡⵉⵔ ⵜⴰⵣⴱⴰⵢⵜ. ⵉⴳ ⵢⴰⵏ ⴽⵓⵍⵍⵓ ⵡⵉⵍⵍⵉ ⵣⵡⴰⵔⵏⵉⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵟⴰⵢⵏ ⵙⴱⴰⵏⵢⴰ ⴷ ⵜⵎⵉⵣⴰⵔ ⵢⴰⴹⵏⵉⵏ ⵍⵉ ⴷⴰⵔ ⵍⵖⵔⴹ ⵖ ⵜⵎⴰⵣⵉⵔⵜⵏⵖ.

ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵖⵜ ⵏ ⴷⵉⵡⴰⵏⴰ

[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵖⵜ ⵜⴰⵎⵣⵡⴰⵔⵓⵜ ⴳⵔ ⵉⵎⵃⴰⵔⴽⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵔⵔⵉⴼ ⵜⵓⵢⵙⴽⴰⵔ ⵖⵓ ⵓⴳⵎⵎⴰⴹ ⵍⵉ ⵎⵓ ⵜⵉⵏⵉⵏ ⴷⵉⵡⴰⵏⴰ. ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵖⵜⴰⴷ ⵍⵉ ⵖ ⵜⵢⴰⴳⴰⵙⵏ, ⴷ ⵎⵜⴻⵏ ⴳⵉⵙ ⵓⴳⴳⴰⵔ ⵏ 3.000 ⵏ ⵓⵖⵡⵡⴰⵖ ⵏ ⵙⴱⴰⵏⵢⴰ.