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ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵜⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ

ⵙⴳ ⵡⵉⴽⵉⴱⵉⴷⵢⴰ
ⵉⴷⵔⵉⵎⵏ ⴳ ⵉⵜⵜⵢⴰⵔⴰ ⵉⵙⵎ ⵏ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⵓ ⵜⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ

ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⵓ ⵜⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⵓⵜⴰⵍⴰⴽⴰⴽⵉⵏ ⴰⵍⵎⵜⴰⵏ ⴰⵥⵏⴰⴳ , ⵓⴳⵍⵉⴷ ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ ⵉⴳⴰ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⴳⵍⵉⴷ ⴰⵎⵓⵕⴰⴱⵉⵟ ⵢⵙⵎⵓⵏ ⴰⵎⵓⵔ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⴷ ⵉⵔⵏⵓ ⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙ ⴷⵓ ⴰⵏⴱⴰⴹ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⵢⵓⵎⵣ ⴰⵡⵏⴰⴽ ⴰⵎⵓⵕⴰⴱⵉⵟ ⵍⵉⵖ ⵢⵓⵊⵊⴰ ⴰⵙ ⵎⴻⵎⵎⵉ ⵏ ⵓⵏⵜⴰⵢ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴰⴱⵓ ⴱⴰⴽⵔ ⵓ ⵄⵓⵎⴰⵔ ⵍⴰⵎⵜⵓⵏⵉ ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⴰ . ⵉⵚⴽⵓ ⵜⴰⵡⵡⵓⵏⴰⴽⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴰⵢⵍⵉⵖ ⵜⵍⴽⵎ ⴱⵊⴰⵢⵜ ⴳ ⵓⴳⵎⵎⵓⴹ ⴷ ⵙⵓⴷⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵉⴼⴼⵓⵙ,ⴰⴳⵔⴰⵡ ⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙⵉ ⴳ ⴳⵔⵡ ⴷ ⵓⴳⵔⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⴳ ⵉⵥⵥⵍⵎⴹ.

ⴰⵙⵎⴹⵍ ⵏ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⵓ ⵜⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ

ⵉⴽⵛⵎ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⵓ ⵜⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⴽⵍⵉⵜ ⵜⴰⵎⵣⵡⴰⵔⵓⵜ ⵙ ⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙ ⴹⴰⵕⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵜⵔ ⵏ ⵉⴳⵍⴷⴰⵏ ⵟⴰⵡⴰⵢⴼ ⵙⵍⴰⵡⴰⵏ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵡⵉⵏ ⵉⵛⴱⵉⵍⵢⴰ , ⵉⵣⵔⵉ ⴰⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⵏ ⵥⵓⵍⴰⵇⴰ ⴳ ⵓⵎⵏⵉⴷ ⵏ ⵜⵉⵙⵔⴷⴰⵙⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵇⵉⵜⴰⵍⴰ ⴷ ⵍⵉⵢⵓⵏ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵉⵣⵡⵓⵔⵜⵏ ⴰⴳⵍⵉⴷ ⴰⵍⴼⵓⵏⵙⵓ ⵡⵉⵙ ⵚⴹⵉⵚ ⵏ ⵇⵛⵜⴰⵍⴰ ⴰⵙⵙ ⵏ 12 ⵔⴰⵊⴰⴱ 479 ⵀⵉⵊⵔⵉ ⵉⵎⴰⵇⴰⵔ 9 ⴽⵟⵓⴱⵕ 2036 ⴰⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ, ⵏⵜⵜⴰ ⴰⵢ ⵢⵓⵡⵙ ⵉ ⵉⵎⵓⵙⵍⵎⵏ ⴰⵢ ⵍⵉⵖ ⵓⵔ ⵜⴷⴷⵉ ⴰⵙⵏ ⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙ, ⵏⵜⵜⴰ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⴰⵢ ⵉⵣⵡⵓⵔⵏ ⵙ ⴰⵙⵙⴰⵖ ⵏ ⴰⴳⵍⴷⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵓⵎⵏⵏ, ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ 1103 ⵏ ⵜⵍⴰⵍⵉⵜ ⵉⵙⵎⴷ ⴳⴰⴳⵍⵉⴷ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⵓ ⵜⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⴰⵏⵣⴰⵍⵓⵙ ⵜⴰⵎⵙⵍⵎⵜ ⵉⵔⵏⵏⵓ ⵜⵜ ⵉ ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ.


ⵉⵙⴱⴷⴷ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⵓ ⵜⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⵜⴰⵎⵏⵓⴽⴷⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⵣⵡⴰⵔⵓⵜ ⴳ ⵜⴰⴳⵓⵜ ⵜⴰⵏⵙⵍⵎⵜ ⴳ ⵜⵓⵏⵙ ⴰⵔ ⵖⴰⵏⴰ ⴳ ⵉⴼⴼⵓⵙ ⴰⵔ ⵡⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙ ⴳ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⴷ ⵉⵙⵙⵏⵊⵎ ⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙ ⴳ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵕⵥⵉ ⴷ ⵜⴰⵙⵙⴰⵙⵜ ⵜⴰⵎⴹⵥⵓⵏⵜ, ⴷ ⵏⵜⵜⴰⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵉⴳⴰⵏ ⴰⵏⴱⵔⴰⵣ ⵏ ⴰⵎⵜⵡⵉ ⵏ ⵜⵥⵍⵍⴰⴳⵜ|ⵓⵎⵜⵡⵉ ⵏ ⵜⵥⵍⵍⴰⴳⵜ ⴷ ⵓⵅⴰⵜⴰⵔ ⵏⵏⵙ. ⵉⵔⵓⵔ-ⴷ ⴷ ⵉⵙⵎⵓⵏ ⴷ ⵎⴰⵕⵕⴰ ⵉⴳⵍⴷⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵜⴳⵔⴱⴰⵣⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵡⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙ ⵙ ⵜⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵏ ⵓⵎⵓⵔ ⵏ ⵡⴰⴽⵓⵛ (1090) ⵍⵍⵉⴳ ⴷⵉⴳⵙ ⵉⵙⵙⵓⵜⵔ ⵓⴳⵍⴷⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵙⵉⴼⵉⵢⵢⴰ ⵜⴰⵍⵉⵍⵜ. ⵉⴳⴰ ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ ⴰⵎⵓⵙⵍⵎ (1106-1006) ⴷ ⵉⴳⴰ ⵡⵉⵙⵙ ⵙⵙⵉⵏ ⵉⴳⵍⴷⴰⵏ ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⵏ ⴹⴰⵕⵜ ⴱⵓ ⴱⴰⴽⵔ ⵓ ⵄⵓⵎⴰⵕ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵉⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵙⵙⴰⵏ ⵙ ⵉⵙⵎ "ⴰⴳⵍⴷⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵙⵍⵎⵏ".

ⵉⵜⵜⵡⴰⵢⵙⵙⴰⵏ ⵙ ⵜⵔⵔⴳⵯⵣⴰ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵉⵏⵏⴰ "ⴷⴷⵀⴱⵉ" ⴳ ⵓⴷⵍⵉⵙ ⵏⵏⵙ "ⵜⴰⵡⴰⴷⴰ ⵏ ⵓⵙⵎⵎⴰⵍ ⵏ ⵉⵏⵎⵖⵓⵔⵏ": ⵉⴳⴰ ⵓ ⵜⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⵜⵓⴳⵜ ⵏ ⵓⵙⵓⵔⴼ ⵢⴰⵥ ⴱⴰⵀⵔⴰ ⵢⵉⵎⴰⵙⵙⴰⵏⵏ ⴷ ⵉⵙⴷⵉⴷ, ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵔⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵜⵛⵃⴰ, ⴰⴳⵕⴹ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵉⵣⴷⴷⵉⴳ, ⵉⴳⴰ ⴰⵙⵔⵜⴰⵏ ⴷ ⵓⴷⵉⴱⵍⵓⵎⴰⵙⵉ.

ⴷ ⵉⵙⵏⵓⵎⵎⵍ ⵜ "ⴱⴰⴷⵔ ⵛⵛⵉⵅ" ⴳ ⵓⴷⵍⵉⵙ ⵏⵏⵙ "ⵓⵙⵎⵉⴷ ⴳ ⵓⵎⵣⵔⵓⵢ": ⵉⴳⴰ ⴰⵎⴰⴽⴽⴰⵢ ⴳ ⴰⵔ ⵉⵜⵜⵉⵔⵉ ⵉⵎⴰⵙⵙⴰⵏⵏ ⴷ ⴰⵢⵜ ⵓⵙⴳⴷ ⴰⵔ ⴼⵍⵍⴰⵙⵏ ⵉⵜⵜⵏⵄⴰⵔ ⴳ ⵜⵎⴰⵣⵉⵔⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⴰⵔ ⵉⵙⵙⴼⵍⵉⴷ ⵢ ⵉⵙⴼⴰⵡⵏ ⴷ ⵉⵙⵎⵎⵜⵔⵏ ⵏⵏⵙⵏ ⵙ ⵜⵓⵎⵔⵜ.

ⴰⵙⵎⵎⵔⵙⵍ ⵏ ⵓⵡⴰⵏⴽ ⴰⵎⵕⴰⴱⵟ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵉⵍⵓⵍ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙ ⵏ 1061 ⵏ ⵜⵍⴰⵍⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⴰⵙⵉⵃ ⴳ ⵜⵎⵏⴰⴹⵜ ⵏ ⵜⴰⴼⵉⵍⴰⵍⵜ ⴳ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⴰⵜⵔⴰⵔ.

ⵍⵍⴰⵏ ⴽⵉⴳⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵙⵔⴰⴳⵏ ⵏⵏⴰ ⴷ ⵢⵓⵊⵊⴰⵏ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵔⵣⵣⵓ ⴰⴼⴰⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⵎⵓⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⴰⵎⵇⵔⴰⵏ, ⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ ⵏⵏⵙⵏ:

1. ⵜⴰⵖⴰⵔⴰⵙⵜ ⵜⴰⵙⵔⵜⴰⵏⵜ: ⵉⵔⴰ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⴱⵓⵖⵍⵓ ⵜⵉⵍⵉⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴷ ⵜⴰⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⴷ ⵉⵙⵡⵉⵏⴳⵉⵎ ⴰⵙⵎⵓⵏⵉ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⴰⵎⵇⵔⴰⵏ ⵙ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵉⴽⵍⵉⵜ ⵜⴰⴷⵙⵍⴰⵏⵜ ⴳ ⵓⵡⵜⵜⴰⵙ ⴰⴷ.

2. ⵜⴰⴱⵓⵖⵍⵓⵜ ⵜⴰⵙⵔⴷⴰⵙⵜ:ⴳⴰⵏ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⴷ ⵜⵎⵏⵢⵓⴳⴰⵔⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵙⵔⴷⴰⵙⵉⵏ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⴱⵔⵉⴷ ⵏ ⵓⵙⴱⵓⵖⵍⵓ ⵏ ⵓⵥⴹⴹⴰⵕ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴷ ⵓⵙⴷⵓⵙ ⵏ ⵡⴰⴷⴷⴰⴷ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⴷ ⵉⵙⵡⵉⵏⴳⵎ ⴳ ⵓⵙⵎⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⵏ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵉⴽⵍⵉⵜ ⵜⴰⴷⵙⵍⴰⵏⵜ ⴳ ⵓⵡⵜⵜⴰⵙ ⴰⴷ.

3. ⵉⵙⵡⵉⵏⴳⵎ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⴰⵙⵎⵓⵏⵉ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⵏ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵜⵣⵎⵎⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵓⵙⵎⵓⵏⵉ ⵏ ⵓⵎⴰⴹⴰⵍ ⴰⵎⵓⵙⵍⵎ ⴷⴷⴰⵡ ⵏ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵏⴱⴰⴹ, ⵉⴳⴰ ⴰⵡⵜⵜⴰⵙ ⴰⵙⵜⵔⴰⵜⵉⵊⵉ ⵉⵔⴰⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⴷⵓⵙ ⵜⴰⴷⵓⵙⵉ ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵙⵍⵎⵜ ⴳ ⵜⵎⵏⴰⴹⵜ.

4. ⴰⵃⵟⵟⵓ ⵏ ⵉⵡⵜⵜⴰ:ⴰⵙⵎⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⴰⵎⵇⵔⴰⵏ ⵉⵙⵙⴷⵓⵙ ⴰⵃⵟⵟⵓ ⴷ ⵜⴷⵔⴼⵉ ⵏ ⵉⵡⵜⵜⴰ ⵏ ⵉⵥⵥⵍⵎⴹ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵎⵕⵕⴰⴽⵡⵛ, ⴷ ⵉⵃⵟⵟⵓ ⵜⵜ ⵙⴳ ⵉⵎⵏⵏⵉⵜⵏ ⵏ ⴱⵕⵕⴰ.

5. ⴰⵙⴱⴷⴷⵉ ⵏ ⵜⴱⴹⴰ ⵏ ⵓⴳⵏⵙⵓ:ⵜⵉⵡⵏⴰⴹⵉⵏ ⵉⵜⵜⵓⴱⴹⴰⵢⵏ ⴷ ⵓⵎⵏⵣⴰⵖ ⴰⴳⵏⵙⵓ ⴳⵔ ⵉⵏⴱⴱⴰⴹⵏ ⵉⴷⵖⵔⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⴳⴰⵏ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵃⴰⴹⵕ ⵉ ⵜⵎⵓⵏⵜ ⵜⴰⵏⵎⵏⴰⴹⵜ, ⴷ ⵓⵙⵎⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⵏ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⵉⴳⴰ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⴱⵔⵉⴷ ⵏ ⵓⵙⴱⴷⴷⵉ ⵏ ⵜⴱⴹⴰ ⴰⴷ ⴷ ⵓⵙⵎⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵓⴳⵏⵙⵓ.

ⵉⴽⴽⴰ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵍⴰⵍⵜ ⵜⴰⵅⴰⵜⴰⵔⵜ ⴳ ⵓⵙⵏⵚⴱ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵡⵊⴰ ⵏ ⵎⵔⴱⴰⵟⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⵏ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ, ⵙ ⵜⵣⵎⵎⴰⵔ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴳ ⵓⵙⵎⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵏⴰⴹⵉⵏ ⴷⴷⴰⵡ ⵜⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴷ ⵓⵙⴷⵓⵙ ⵏ ⵜⵣⵎⵔⵜ ⵜⴰⵙⵔⵜⴰⵏⵜ ⴷ ⵜⴰⵙⵔⴷⴰⵙⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵎⵔⴱⴰⵟⵉⵏ. ⵀⴰ ⴽⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⴽⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵙⴼⵙⵔⵏ ⵜⵉⵍⴰⵍⵜ ⵏ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵙⵔⵙ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵡⵊⴰ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⵉⵏ:

1. ⴰⵙⵎⵓⵏⵉ ⴰⵙⵔⵜⴰⵏ: ⵢⵓⵡⵉ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵎⵀⵍⴰ ⵏ ⵓⵙⵎⵓⵏⵉ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⵏ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⴷⴷⴰⵡ ⵜⴰⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⵉⵣⴹⴰⵕ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⵎⵓⵏ ⵜⵉⵎⵏⴰⴹⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⴷⴷⴰⵡ ⵜⴰⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ.

2. ⴰⵙⴷⵓⵙ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ ⵜⴰⵙⵔⴷⴰⵙⵜ: ⵉⵙⴽⵔ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⴳⵔⴰⵡ ⵉⴷⵓⵙⵏ ⴷ ⵉⴼⵓⵍⴽⵉⵏ, ⴷ ⵉⵣⵎⵔ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⵙⵉⵅⴼ ⵜⵉⵎⵙⵙⵉⵅⴼⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵎⵙⵔⴷⴰⵙⵉⵏ ⵉⵎⵓⵔⵙⵏ ⵎⴳⴰⵍ ⵏ ⵉⵡⴰⵏⴽⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵙⴳⴰ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⵎⴰ ⵢⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⵙⴱⵖⵔⵏ ⵙ ⵓⵥⴹⴹⴰ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵔⵡⵉⵢⵏ ⴷ ⵓⵙⴷⵓⵙ ⵏ ⵡⴰⴷⴷⴰⴷ ⵏⵏⵙⵏ ⴰⵎⵎ ⵜⴰⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ ⵜⴰⵙⵔⴷⴰⵙⵜ.

3. ⵜⵓⵙⴽⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵚⴽⵉⵡⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ:ⵉⵙⴽⵔ ⵜⵓⵚⴽⵉⵡⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵙⵡⵓⴷⴷⵓⵏ ⵜⵉⵎⵙⴰⵔⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵓⴳⵏⵙⵓ ⴷ ⴱⵕⵕⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ, ⴷ ⵉⵙⴽⵔ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵏⴳⵔⴰⵡ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵙⵙⵓⴳⵓⵔⵜ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵢⴰⵡⵙⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵙⵡⵓⴷⴷⵓ ⵏ ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵜⴰⵙⵔⵜⴰⵏⵜ ⴷ ⵜⴷⵎⵙⴰⵏⵜ.

4. ⴰⵙⴷⵓⵙ ⵏ ⵜⴷⵍⵙⴰ ⴷ ⵓⵙⴳⴷ:** ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⵉⵙⴷⵓⵙ ⵜⴷⵍⵙⴰ ⴷ ⵜⵎⴰⵙⵙⴰⵏⵉⵏ, ⴷ ⵉⵙⴱⵓⵖⵍⵓ ⵜⵉⵍⴰⵍⵜ ⵜⴰⴷⵍⵙⴰⵏⵜ ⴷ ⵜⴷⵍⵙⴰⵏⵜ, ⵎⴰ ⵢⴰⴷ ⵢⴰⵡⵙⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴷⵓⵙ ⵏ ⵜⵎⴰⴳⵉⵜ ⵜⴰⴷⵍⵙⴰⵏⵜ ⴷ ⵜⴷⵍⵙⴰⵏⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵎⵕⵕⴰⴽⵡⵛ.

5. ⴰⵙⴷⵓⵙ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵢⵏⵓⵜ: ⵙ ⵉⵡⵓⵔⴰⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴷ ⵉⵎⵓⵔⵙⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⵢⵓⵡⵙ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴷⵓⵙ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵢⵏⵓⵜ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵡⵊⴰ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵕⴰⴱⵟⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵓⵙⴷⵓⵙ ⵏ ⵡⴰⴷⴷⴰⴷ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴰⵎⵎ ⵜⴰⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ ⴳ ⵜⵎⵏⴰⴹⵜ.

ⵙ ⵜⴱⵔⵉⴷⵜ ⴰⴷ, ⵜⵉⵣⵎⵎⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⴳⴰⵏⵜ ⵜⵉⴷⵙⵍⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵙⵏⵚⴱ ⵏ ⵜⵡⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜ ⵏ ⵎⵔⴱⴰⴱⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵓⵙⵔⵙ ⵏ ⵜⵉⵔⵙⴰⵍ ⵏ ⵜⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴳ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⵏ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ, ⴷ ⵜⵓⵎⵥ ⵜⴰⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵏⴰⵎⴽ ⴰⵙⵔⵜⴰⵏ ⴷ ⴰⴷⵍⵙⴰⵏ ⴰⵅⴰⵜⴰⵔ ⴳ ⵓⵎⵣⵔⵓⵢ ⵏ ⵍⵉⵙⵍⴰⵎ.

ⵜⴰⵙⵏⵜⴰⵢⵜ ⵏ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⵎⴳⴰⵍ ⵏ ⵉⵡⴰⵏⴽⵏ ⵉⵚⴱⵍⵢⵓⵏⵉⵢⵏ ⴳ ⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙⵢⴰ ⵜⴳⴰ ⵎⵏⵏⴰⵡⵜ ⵜⴼⵓⵍⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵜⵓⵎⵍⵉⵍⵜ, ⵜⵙⵙⵎⵔⴰⵙ ⵜⴰⵔⴰⴱⴱⵓⵜ ⵏ ⵜⴱⵔⵉⴷⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵙⵔⴷⴰⵙⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵜⵉⵙⵔⵜⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⵃⵎⴰ ⴰⴷ ⵜⵍⴽⵎ ⵉⵡⵜⵜⴰⵙⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴰⵜⵉ ⴰⴷ. ⵀⴰ ⴽⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⴽⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵙⵜⵔⴰⵜⵉⵊⵉⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ:

1. ⵜⵔⴰ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⴽⵔ ⵜⵓⵇⵇⵏⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵉⴳⴷⵓⴷⵏ ⵉⴷⵖⵔⴰⵏⵏ ⴷ ⵜⵔⵓⴱⴱⴰ ⵜⵉⵙⵔⵜⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵎⵓⵙⵍⵎⵉⵏ ⴳ ⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙ, ⴰⴼⴰⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⴷⵓⵙ ⵜⴰⴷⵓⵙⵉ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵃⴱⵓ ⵜⴰⴷⵔⴰⵡⵜ ⵜⴰⴷⵖⵔⴰⵏⵜ ⴳ ⵉⵎⵏⵣⴰⵢⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵉⵙⵔⴷⴰⵙⵏ.

2. **ⵜⴰⵙⵓⴳⵔⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵅⵅⴰⵎ:** ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⵉⵙⵙⵎⵔⵙ ⵜⵉⵙⵓⴳⵔⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵅⵅⴰⵎ ⴷ ⵓⵅⵅⴰⵎ ⵎⴳⴰⵍ ⵏ ⵜⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵚⴱⴰⵏⵢⴰ ⴳ ⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙ, ⴰⴼⴰⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⴱⵉⴷⴷ ⵓⵅⵅⴰⵎ ⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⴽⵔ ⵜⵉⵡⵓⵔⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵙⵜⵔⴰⵜⵉⵊⵉⵏ.

3. **ⴰⵙⵎⵔⵙ ⵏ ⵓⴱⵟⵟⵓ ⴰⴳⵡⵏⵙⴰⵏ:** ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⵉⵙⵎⵔⵙ ⴰⴱⵟⵟⵓ ⴰⴳⵡⵏⵙⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵜⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵚⴱⴰⵏⵢⴰ, ⴷ ⵉⵙⵎⵔⵙ ⴰⵙⵏ ⴰⴼⴰⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⴱⵉⴷⴷ ⴰⵎⵏⵣⴰⵖ ⴰⵚⴱⴰⵏⵢⵓⵍⵉ ⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⴱⵉⴷⴷ ⵜⵉⵖⵔⵉ ⵏ ⵜⴳⴳⴰⵍⵉⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ.

4. ⴰⵙⵎⵔⵙ ⵏ ⵜⴳⴳⴰⵍⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵍⴰⴼⵉⵏ: ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⵉⵙⵎⵔⵙ ⵜⵉⵍⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵜⴳⴳⴰⵍⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵍⴰⴼⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵎⵓⵙⵍⵎⵏ, ⵣⵓⵏⴷ ⵜⴰⴱⵉⵔⴱⵉⵔⵜ ⴷ ⵜⵎⵔⵔⴱⵉⵏ, ⵃⵎⴰ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⴷⵓⵙ ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⴷⵓⵙ ⴰⴱⵕⵓⵟⴰⵊ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵎⴳⴰⵍ ⵜⴰⴳⴳⴰⵍⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵍⴰⴼⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵚⴱⵍⵢⵓⵏⵉⵢⵉⵏ.

5. ⵢⵓⵡⵉ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⵎⵏⵏⴰⵡⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵀⵍⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵙⵔⴷⴰⵙⵉⵏ ⵎⴳⴰⵍ ⵏ ⵜⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵚⴱⴰⵏⵢⴰ, ⴳ ⵍⵍⴰⵏⵜ ⵜⵎⴷⵉⵏⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵓⴱⵕⵓⵟⵓⴽⵓⵍ ⴷ ⵡⴰⵏⵙⵉⵡⵏ ⵉⵙⵜⵔⴰⵜⵉⵊⵉⵏ, ⴰⴼⴰⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵢⴰⵡⵉ ⵜⴰⴱⵔⵣⴰ ⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⴱⵉⴷⴷ ⵉⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⵉⵅⴰⵜⴰⵔⵏ.

ⵙ ⵜⵙⵜⵔⴰⵜⵉⵊⵉⵢⵉⵏ ⴰⴷ ⴷ ⵡⵉⵢⵢⴰⴹ, ⵉⵣⵎⵔ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⴽⵔ ⵉⵎⵓⵔⵙⵏ ⵉⵙⵔⴷⴰⵙⵏ ⵉⵅⴰⵜⴰⵔⵏ ⵎⴳⴰⵍ ⵏ ⵉⵡⴰⵏⴽⵏ ⵉⵙⴱⵍⵢⵓⵏⵉⵢⵏ ⴳ ⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙ, ⴷ ⵙ ⵜⵡⵉⵙⵉ ⵏ ⵜⵣⵎⵎⴰⵔ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⴱⵓⵖⵍⵓ ⵓⵥⴹⴹⴰⵕ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵔⵡⵉⵢⵏ ⴷ ⵓⵙⴷⵓⵙ ⵏ ⵓⵏⴱⴰⴹ ⵏⵏⵙⵏ ⴳ ⵜⵎⵏⴰⴹⵜ.

ⵉⵎⵎⵓⵜ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙ ⵏ 1106. ⵜⵍⴽⵎ ⵜⴳⵉⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⵙ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵎⵣⴳⵉⴷⴰ, ⴰⵛⴽⵓ ⵉⵜⵜⵡⴰⵜⵜⵓ ⴳ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵎⵏⵖⵉ ⴳⵔ ⵜⴳⴳⴰⵍⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵍⴰⴼⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⴳⵍⴷⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵜⴳⴳⴰⵍⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵍⴰⴼⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⴳⵍⴷⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵜⵎⵏⴰⴹⵜ ⵏ ⵜⴰⴳⵣⵉⵔⵜ ⵜⴰⵣⴳⵣⴰⵡⵜ ⴳ ⵉⵥⵥⵍⵎⴹ ⵏ ⵉⴼⵔⵉⵇⵢⴰ. ⵓⵔ ⵜⵍⵍⵉ ⵎⴰⴷ ⵉⴳⴳⵔⵏ ⵉ ⵓⵎⵏⵣⴰⵖ ⴰⴷ, ⵎⴰⵛⴰ ⵉⴳⴰ ⴰⵎⵏⵣⴰⵖ ⵅⴼ ⵜⴰⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ ⴳⵔ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵟⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⴷ ⴽⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵉⴼⵔⴷⵉⵙⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ ⴳ ⵓⴳⵔⴰⵡ ⵏ ⵍⵄⵢⴰⵢⴷⴰ. ⵙ ⵓⵣⵎⵣⵣⵓ ⴷⵖ, ⵜⵎⵎⵓⵜ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵙⴳ ⵜⵎⵉⵣⴰⵔ ⵜⵉⵎⵇⵕⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵎⵣⵔⵓⵢ ⵏ ⵍⵉⵙⵍⴰⵎ ⴷ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵉⵙⵉ.

ⵥⵕ ⵓⴳⴳⴰⵔ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵉⵙⴰⵖⵓⵍⵏ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]