ⵙⵍⴰ

ⵙⴳ ⵡⵉⴽⵉⴱⵉⴷⵢⴰ
ⵙⵍⴰ
ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ
ⴰⴷⵖⴰⵔ
ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ
ⵜⴰⵎⵏⴰⴹⵜⵜⴰⵎⵏⴰⴹⵜ ⵏ ⵕⵕⴱⴰⵟ-ⵙⵍⴰ-ⵍⵇⵏⴹⵔⵜ
ⵜⴰⵎⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜSalé
Grande villeSla
ⵉⵏⵉⴳⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⵡⴰⵢ 11000
ⵜⴰⵔⴰⴽⴰⵍⵜ
ⵜⴰⵜⵜⵓⵢⵜ 116 m
ⵜⴰⵔⴰⵖⵔⴼⵜ
ⵉⵎⵣⴷⴰⵖ 850 403 ⵏ ⵉⵎⵣⴷⴰⵖ (2014)
ⵉⵏⵖⵎⵉⵙⵏ ⵢⴰⴹⵏⵉⵏ
ⴰⴽⵓⴷ ⴰⴷⵖⴰⵔⴰⵏ ⴰⴽⵓⴷ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵕⵓⴱⵜ
villedesale.ma
ⵜⴰⴽⴰⵕⴹⴰ
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ⵙⵍⴰ ⵏⵖ ⵛⴰⵍⵍⴰ ( ⵙ ⵜⵄⵔⴰⴱⵜ: سلا ) ⵜⴳⴰ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵉⵖⵔⵎⵜ ⵏⵖⴷ ⵜⴰⵎⴷⵉⵏⵜ ⵉⵍⵍⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵎⵔⵔⵓⴽ.

ⴰⵎⵣⵔⵓⵢ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⵢⴰⵡⵙⵙⵏⵜⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴷⵉⵏⵜ ⵏ ⵙⵍⴰ ⴼ ⵓⴼⵓⵙ ⵏ ⴱⴰⵏⵉ ⵢⴰⴼⵔⵏ ⴳ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⵉⵙⵙ ⵎⵔⴰⵡⵜ, ⵜⴹⵕ ⴳ ⵉⴼⴰⵙⵙⵏ ⵉ ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⵜⵉⵏ ⴰⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⵏ 1028. ⵜⵙⵙⵖ ⴱⴰⵀⵔⴰ ⵜⵎⵙⵓⵙⵙⵓ ⴳ ⵓⵣⵎⵣ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵡⴰⵃⵃⵉⴷⵉⵏ (ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⵉⵙⵙ 11) ⴷ ⵍⵎⴰⵔⵉⵏⵢⵢⵉⵏ (ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⵉⵙⵙ 14), ⵙ ⵓⵎⵏⵜⵉⵍ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵏⵙⴰ ⵍⵍⵉ ⴳ ⵜⵍⵍⴰ ⴷ ⵓⵙⵍⴰⵍⵍⵓ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵉⴳⴰⵏ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵡⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵜⵙⴱⴱⴰⴱⵜ ⴳⵔ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⴷ ⵓⵕⵓⴱⴱⴰ.

ⴳ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⵉⵙⵙ 17, ⵙⵍⴰⵡⴰⵏ ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⴷ ⴽⵛⵎⵏ ⵉⵎⵓⵙⵍⵎⵏ ⴷ ⵓⴷⴰⵢⵏ ⴷⴰ ⵔⵡⵍⵏⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵍⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙ, ⵜⵥⵡⵔ ⵜⵎⴷⵉⵏⵜ ⵜⴰⵣⴰⵢⴽⵓⵜ ⴰⵢⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵜⵍⵍⴰ ⵜⵖⵏⵏⴰⵏⵜ ⴳⵔ ⴰⵙ ⴷ ⵕⵕⴱⴰⵟ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵎⵓ ⵉⵙⵎ ⵙⵍⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵢⵏⵓⵜ. ⴳ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⵉⵙⵙ 19 ⴷ ⵉⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵙⴷⵓⵔⵔⵉ ⵜⴱⴷⴷ ⵜⵎⴰⵊⵉⵍⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴰⵢⵙ ⵏ ⵜⵙⴱⴱⴰⴱⵜ, ⵜⵓⵔⵔⵉ ⵜⴳ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⴱⴰⵔⴰⵣ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵙⵙⵏⴰ ⴷ ⵓⵎⵙⵏⴽⴰⵔ ⴰⵎⵏⵉⴷ ⵏ ⵓⵙⴷⵓⵔⵔⵉ.

ⵖⵎⴽⵍⵍⵉ ⵜⴳⴰ ⵙⵍⴰ ⵜⴰⵣⴰⵢⴽⵓⵜ ⵜⵉⵙⵙⵉ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵙⵙⵏⴰ ⵜⴰⵄⵕⴰⴱⵜ ⵓⵍⴰ ⵜⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙⵉⵜ, ⵜⴳⴰ ⴷⴰⵖ ⵜⵉⵙⵙⵉ ⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵓⴳⵜⵜ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵡⵊⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵉⵙⵙⵓⴳⵏ ⵉⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵙⵙⴰⵏⵏ, ⴷ ⵉⵎⴰⵙⵙⴰⵏⵏ ⵉⵎⵇⵇⵔⴰⵏⵏ, ⴷ ⵉⵎⵏⴽⴰⵔⵏ ⵉⵏⴰⵎⵓⵔⵏ. ⵎⴰⵢⴰⴷ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵉⴳⴰ ⴰⵏⴰⴳⴰⵏ ⴼ ⵓⵎⵣⵔⵓⵢ ⴰⵅⴰⵜⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵜⵎⴰⵣⵉⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵙⵍⴰ.

ⴱⴰⴱ ⵍⵎⵔⵉⵙⴰ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⴳⴰ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⴰⴳⴳⵓⵔⵜ ⵜⴰⵎⵣⵔⴰⵢⵜ ⵉⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏ ⴳ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ, ⵉⵚⴽⴰ ⵜⵜ ⵓⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ ⴰⴱⵓ ⵢⵓⵙⴻⴼ ⵢⴰⵄⵇⵓⴱ ⴱⵏ ⵄⴰⴱⴷ ⵍⵃⴰⵇⵇ ⴳⵔ ⴰⵙⴳⴳⴰⵙ ⵏ 658/1270 ⴷ 668/1280. ⴰⵎⵙⴷⴰⴳ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵉⴱⴷⴷⵏ ⴼ ⵓⵙⵏⵜⵉ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⵎ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵎⵓⵀⵎⵎⴰⴷ ⴱⵏ ⵄⵍⵉ ⵣⵣⵖ ⵜⴰⵎⴷⵉⵏⵜ ⵏ ⵉⵛⴱⵉⵍⵢⴰ ⴳ ⵍⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙ. ⵜⵉⵙⴽⵜ ⵏ ⵜⴰⴳⴳⵓⵔⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵜⵔⵡⴰⵙ ⵜⴰⵙⵉⵍⴰ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵢⵢⵉⵙ ⵉⵕⵥⴰⵏ, ⴰⵏⵓⵕⵥⵎ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴳⵉⵙ 9 ⵎⵉⵜⵔⵓ, ⵜⴰⵇⵉⵛⵛⵉⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵜⴰⵜⵜⵓⵢ ⴼ ⵡⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⵙ 9,60 ⵎⵉⵜⵔⵓ.

ⴱⴰⴱ ⵙⴱⵜⴰ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⵍⵍⴰ ⴳ ⵉⵥⵍⵎⴹ ⵏ ⵜⴰⴳⵓⵜ ⵏ ⵓⴳⴰⴷⵉⵔ. ⵜⴻⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵙⵙⴰⵏ ⵙ ⵍⴱⵔⵊ ⵢⴰⵜⵜⵓⵢⵏ ⵍⵍⵉ ⴳⵉⵙ ⵉⵍⵍⴰⵏ. ⵍⴱⵔⵊ ⴰⴷ ⵉⴳⴰ ⵢⴰⴷⵍⵍⵉ ⴰⵙⵖⵉⵎ ⵏ ⵓⵏⵙⵙⵉⵅⴼ ⵄⴱⴷ ⵍⵃⴰⵇⵇ ⴼⵉⵏⵏⵉⵛ (1738-1757). ⵜⴰⴳⴳⵓⵔⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵇⵇⴰⵏ ⴷ ⴰⴷ ⴳⵉⵙ ⵉⵣⵔⵉ ⵡⴰⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵔⴰⵏ ⴰⵎⵏⵉⴷ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵎⴷⵉⵏⵜ ⵏ ⵙⴱⵜⴰ

ⴱⴰⴱ ⴱⵓⵀⴰⵊⴰ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⴰⴳⴳⵓⵔⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏ ⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵅⵍⴰ ⵖ ⵉⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙⵏ ⵏ 1960. ⴰⵙⵙⴰⵖ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵉⵜⵜⵢⴰⵙⵢ ⴷ ⵖ ⵉⵙⵎ ⵏ ⵓⴳⵯⵔⵔⴰⵎ ⵙⵉⴷⵉ ⴱⵕⴰⵀⵉⵎ ⴱⵓⵃⴰⵊⴰ ⴰⵔⵔⵓⵏⴷⵉ ⵖ ⵍⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙ

ⵜⵢⴰⵡⵙⵙⵏⵜⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴷⵉⵏⵜ ⵏ ⵙⵍⴰ ⴼ ⵓⴼⵓⵙ ⵏ ⴱⴰⵏⵉ ⵢⴰⴼⵔⵏ ⴳ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⵉⵙⵙ ⵎⵔⴰⵡⵜ, ⵜⴹⵕ ⴳ ⵉⴼⴰⵙⵙⵏ ⵉ ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⵜⵉⵏ ⴰⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⵏ 1028. ⵜⵙⵙⵖ ⴱⴰⵀⵔⴰ ⵜⵎⵙⵓⵙⵙⵓ ⴳ ⵓⵣⵎⵣ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵡⴰⵃⵃⵉⴷⵉⵏ (ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⵉⵙⵙ 11) ⴷ ⵍⵎⴰⵔⵉⵏⵢⵢⵉⵏ (ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⵉⵙⵙ 14), ⵙ ⵓⵎⵏⵜⵉⵍ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵏⵙⴰ ⵍⵍⵉ ⴳ ⵜⵍⵍⴰ ⴷ ⵓⵙⵍⴰⵍⵍⵓ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵉⴳⴰⵏ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵡⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵜⵙⴱⴱⴰⴱⵜ ⴳⵔ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⴷ ⵓⵕⵓⴱⴱⴰ.

ⴳ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⵉⵙⵙ 17, ⵙⵍⴰⵡⴰⵏ ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⴷ ⴽⵛⵎⵏ ⵉⵎⵓⵙⵍⵎⵏ ⴷ ⵓⴷⴰⵢⵏ ⴷⴰ ⵔⵡⵍⵏⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵍⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙ, ⵜⵥⵡⵔ ⵜⵎⴷⵉⵏⵜ ⵜⴰⵣⴰⵢⴽⵓⵜ ⴰⵢⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵜⵍⵍⴰ ⵜⵖⵏⵏⴰⵏⵜ ⴳⵔ ⴰⵙ ⴷ ⵕⵕⴱⴰⵟ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵎⵓ ⵉⵙⵎ ⵙⵍⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵢⵏⵓⵜ. ⴳ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⵉⵙⵙ 19 ⴷ ⵉⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵙⴷⵓⵔⵔⵉ ⵜⴱⴷⴷ ⵜⵎⴰⵊⵉⵍⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴰⵢⵙ ⵏ ⵜⵙⴱⴱⴰⴱⵜ, ⵜⵓⵔⵔⵉ ⵜⴳ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⴱⴰⵔⴰⵣ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵙⵙⵏⴰ ⴷ ⵓⵎⵙⵏⴽⴰⵔ ⴰⵎⵏⵉⴷ ⵏ ⵓⵙⴷⵓⵔⵔⵉ.

ⵖⵎⴽⵍⵍⵉ ⵜⴳⴰ ⵙⵍⴰ ⵜⴰⵣⴰⵢⴽⵓⵜ ⵜⵉⵙⵙⵉ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵙⵙⵏⴰ ⵜⴰⵄⵕⴰⴱⵜ ⵓⵍⴰ ⵜⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙⵉⵜ, ⵜⴳⴰ ⴷⴰⵖ ⵜⵉⵙⵙⵉ ⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵓⴳⵜⵜ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵡⵊⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵉⵙⵙⵓⴳⵏ ⵉⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵙⵙⴰⵏⵏ, ⴷ ⵉⵎⴰⵙⵙⴰⵏⵏ ⵉⵎⵇⵇⵔⴰⵏⵏ, ⴷ ⵉⵎⵏⴽⴰⵔⵏ ⵉⵏⴰⵎⵓⵔⵏ. ⵎⴰⵢⴰⴷ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵉⴳⴰ ⴰⵏⴰⴳⴰⵏ ⴼ ⵓⵎⵣⵔⵓⵢ ⴰⵅⴰⵜⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵜⵎⴰⵣⵉⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵙⵍⴰ.


  • ⵜⵉⴳⴳⵓⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵙⵍⴰ ⵜⴰⵇⴱⵓⵔⵜ


ⴱⴰⴱ ⵍⵎⵔⵉⵙⴰ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⴳⴰ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⴰⴳⴳⵓⵔⵜ ⵜⴰⵎⵣⵔⴰⵢⵜ ⵉⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏ ⴳ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ, ⵉⵚⴽⴰ ⵜⵜ ⵓⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ ⴰⴱⵓ ⵢⵓⵙⴻⴼ ⵢⴰⵄⵇⵓⴱ ⴱⵏ ⵄⴰⴱⴷ ⵍⵃⴰⵇⵇ ⴳⵔ ⴰⵙⴳⴳⴰⵙ ⵏ 658/1270 ⴷ 668/1280. ⴰⵎⵙⴷⴰⴳ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵉⴱⴷⴷⵏ ⴼ ⵓⵙⵏⵜⵉ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⵎ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵎⵓⵀⵎⵎⴰⴷ ⴱⵏ ⵄⵍⵉ ⵣⵣⵖ ⵜⴰⵎⴷⵉⵏⵜ ⵏ ⵉⵛⴱⵉⵍⵢⴰ ⴳ ⵍⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙ. ⵜⵉⵙⴽⵜ ⵏ ⵜⴰⴳⴳⵓⵔⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵜⵔⵡⴰⵙ ⵜⴰⵙⵉⵍⴰ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵢⵢⵉⵙ ⵉⵕⵥⴰⵏ, ⴰⵏⵓⵕⵥⵎ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴳⵉⵙ 9 ⵎⵉⵜⵔⵓ, ⵜⴰⵇⵉⵛⵛⵉⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵜⴰⵜⵜⵓⵢ ⴼ ⵡⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⵙ 9,60 ⵎⵉⵜⵔⵓ.

ⴱⴰⴱ ⵙⴱⵜⴰ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⵍⵍⴰ ⴳ ⵉⵥⵍⵎⴹ ⵏ ⵜⴰⴳⵓⵜ ⵏ ⵓⴳⴰⴷⵉⵔ. ⵜⴻⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵙⵙⴰⵏ ⵙ ⵍⴱⵔⵊ ⵢⴰⵜⵜⵓⵢⵏ ⵍⵍⵉ ⴳⵉⵙ ⵉⵍⵍⴰⵏ. ⵍⴱⵔⵊ ⴰⴷ ⵉⴳⴰ ⵢⴰⴷⵍⵍⵉ ⴰⵙⵖⵉⵎ ⵏ ⵓⵏⵙⵙⵉⵅⴼ ⵄⴱⴷ ⵍⵃⴰⵇⵇ ⴼⵉⵏⵏⵉⵛ (1738-1757). ⵜⴰⴳⴳⵓⵔⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵇⵇⴰⵏ ⴷ ⴰⴷ ⴳⵉⵙ ⵉⵣⵔⵉ ⵡⴰⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵔⴰⵏ ⴰⵎⵏⵉⴷ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵎⴷⵉⵏⵜ ⵏ ⵙⴱⵜⴰ.

ⴱⴰⴱ ⴱⵓⵃⴰⵊⴰ:[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⴰⴳⴳⵓⵔⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏ ⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵅⵍⴰ ⵖ ⵉⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙⵏ ⵏ 1960. ⴰⵙⵙⴰⵖ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵉⵜⵜⵢⴰⵙⵢ ⴷ ⵖ ⵉⵙⵎ ⵏ ⵓⴳⵯⵔⵔⴰⵎ ⵙⵉⴷⵉ ⴱⵕⴰⵀⵉⵎ ⴱⵓⵃⴰⵊⴰ ⴰⵔⵔⵓⵏⴷⵉ ⵖ ⵍⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙ.


ⴱⴰⴱ ⴷⴰⵕ ⵚⵚⵉⵏⴰⵄⴰ:[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵉⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵙⵙⴰⵏ ⵙ ⵡⴰⵙⵙⴰⵖ ⵏ ⴱⴰⴱ ⵄⵏⵜⵔ ⴷ ⴱⴰⴱ ⵍⴼⵕⵕⵏ, ⴷ ⵓⵙⴰⴽⵯⵏ ⵏ ⵙⵙⵍⴰⵃ ⴳⵉⵙ ⵉⵍⵍⴰⵏ. ⵉⴱⵏⴰ ⵜ ⵓⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ ⴰⴱⵓ ⵢⵓⵙⵓⴼ ⵢⴰⵄⵇⵓⴱ ⴱⵏ ⵄⴱⴷ ⵍⵃⴰⵇⵇ ⵍⵎⴰⵔⵉⵏⵉ ⴳ 1261.

ⴱⴰⴱ ⵛⵄⴼⴰ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⴰⴳⴳⵓⵔⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵙⵙⴰⵏ ⵙ ⵜⵎⵙⴷⴰⴳⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵉⵥⵉⵍⵏ, ⵜⴰⵜⵜⵓⵢ ⵙ ⵙⵎⵎⵓⵙ ⵉⴷ ⵎⵉⵜⵔⵓ.

ⴱⴰⴱ ⵎⵄⵍⵇⴰ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⴰⴳⴳⵓⵔⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵜⴳⴰ ⴰⵎⵣⵣⵢⴰⵏⵜ, ⵜⵟⵟⴰⴼ ⵙⵏⴰⵜ ⵜⴼⵍⵡⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵓⴽⵛⵛⵓⴹ. ⴰⵔ ⴳⵉⵙ ⵉⵣⵔⴰⵢ ⵓⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ ⵖ ⵓⵣⵎⵣ ⴰⵏⵏ ⵉⵖ ⵔⴰⴷ ⵏⵏ ⵉⴽⴽ ⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵙⵍⴰ.

  • ⴱⴰⴱ ⵍⵅⵎⵉⵙ:

ⵉⵍⵍⴰ ⴳ ⵍⵇⴱⵍⵜ ⵏ ⵙⵍⴰ. ⵉⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵙⵙⴰⵏ ⴷⴰⵜ ⵏ 1991 ⵙ ⵡⴰⵙⵙⴰⵖ ⵏ ⴱⴰⴱ ⴼⴰⵙ.

ⵍⴱⵕⵓⵊ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵎⴷⵉⵏⵜ ⵏ ⵙⵍⴰ


  • ⵍⴱⵕⵊ ⵏ ⴱⴰⴱ ⵙⴱⵜⴰ:

ⵉⵚⴽⴰ ⵜ ⵉⵏⴱⴱⴰⴹ ⵄⴱⴷ ⵍⵃⴰⵇⵇ ⴼⵏⵏⵉⵛ ⵖ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⵏ 1738. ⵉⴳⴰ ⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵖ ⴰ ⵙⵏⵎⴰⵍⴰⵏ ⵜⵉⵖⴰⵡⵙⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵎⴷⵉⵏⵜ.

  • ⵍⴱⵕⵊ ⵏ ⴷⴷⵓⵎⵓⵄ:

ⵉⵚⴽⴰ ⵜ ⵓⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ ⵙⵉⴷⵉ ⵎⵓⵃⵎⵎⴰⴷ ⴱⵏ ⵄⴱⴷ ⵍⵍⴰⵀ ⴰⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⵏ 1759. ⵉⵍⴰ ⴰⵙⵙⴰⵖ ⵢⴰⴹⵏ : ⵍⴱⵕⵊ ⵏ ⵙⵉⴷⵉ ⴱⵏⵄⴰⵛⵔ.

  • ⵍⴱⵕⵊ ⵏ ⵕⵕⵓⵏⵉ:


ⵉⵚⴽⴰ ⵜ ⵄⴱⴷ ⵔⵔⵃⵎⴰⵏ ⴱⵏ ⵀⵉⵛⴰⵎ ⴰⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⵏ 1853, ⵉⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵙⵙⴰⵏ ⵙ ⵡⴰⵙⵙⴰⵖ ⵏ ⵍⴱⵕⵊ ⴰⵎⵇⵇⵔⴰⵏ.

  • ⵍⴱⵕⵊ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵍⵍⴰⵃ:

ⵉⵍⵍⴰ ⴳ ⵜⴰⵎⴰ ⵏ ⴱⴰⴱ ⵍⵎⵕⵉⵚⴰ.

  • ⵍⴱⵕⵊ ⵍⵎⵓⵜⵎⵎⴰⵏ:

ⵉⵜⵜⵓⴼⴽⴰ ⵢⴰⵙ ⵡⴰⵙⵙⴰⵖ ⴰⴷ ⴰⵛⴽⵓ ⵜⵟⵟⴼ ⵜⵜⴰⵎⵜ ⵜⵖⵎⵔⵉⵏ.


  • ⵜⵉⵎⵣⴳⴰⴷⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵎⴷⵉⵏⵜ ⵜⴰⵇⴱⵓⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵙⵍⴰ


  • ⴰⵍⵎⴰⵙⵊⵉⴷ ⴰⵍⴰⵄⴹⴰⵎ:

ⵜⵢⴰⵡⵙⵙⴰⵏ ⵙⵍⴰ ⵜⴰⵇⴱⵓⵔⵜ ⵙ ⵜⵎⵣⴳⵉⴷⴰ ⵢⴰⴷ ⵉⴳⴰⵏ ⵜⴰⵎⵇⵔⴰⵏⵜ. ⵉⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵙⴽⴰⵔ ⵓⵙⵎⵙⴰⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴳ ⵓⵣⵎⵣ ⵏ ⵓⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ ⴰⴱⵓ ⵢⵓⵙⵓⴼ ⵢⴰⵄⵇⵓⴱ ⴱⵏ ⵢⵓⵙⵓⴼ ⴰⵍⵎⴰⵏⵚⵓⵕ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⵏ 593/1196.

ⴰⵙⴰⵢⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵣⴳⵉⴷⴰ ⵢⴰⴷ ⵉⵣⵔⵉ 5070 ⵎ2. ⴳⵉⵙ ⵙⵏⴰⵜ ⵜⵎⵚⵕⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵥⴰⵍⵍⵉⵟ ⴷ ⵎⵏⵏⴰⵡⵜ ⵜⵎⵇⵚⵓⵕⵉⵏ. ⵉⵏⴱⴷⴰⴷⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴰⵜⵜⵓⵢⵏ ⴱⴰⵀⵔⴰ, ⵜⵉⵙⴽⵜⵉⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴳⵓⵓⵜⵏⵜ ⵥⵉⵍⵏⵜ.

  • ⵎⴰⵙⵊⵉⴷ ⴰⵛⵛⴰⵀⴱⴰ:

ⵜⵉⵎⵣⴳⵉⴷⴰ ⵜⵉⵙ ⵙⵏⴰⵜ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵉⵚⴽⴰ ⵓⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ ⵢⵓⵙⴼ ⴱⵏ ⵜⴰⵛⴼⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵙⵍⴰ ⴳ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⵉⵙ ⵢⴰⵏ ⴷ ⵎⵔⴰⵡ.

  • ⵎⴰⵙⵊⵉⴷ ⵙⵉⴷⵉ ⴰⵃⵎⴰⴷ ⵃⴰⵊⵊⵉ:

ⴰⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ ⵎⵓⵍⴰⵢ ⵙⵎⴰⵄⵉⵍ ⴱⵏ ⵄⵍⵉ ⵛⵛⴰⵔⵉⴼ ⵏⵜⵜⴰⵏ ⴰ ⵉⵚⴽⴰⵏ ⵜⵉⵎⵣⴳⵉⴷⴰ ⵢⴰⴷ, ⵉⴼⴽ ⴰⵙ ⴰⵙⵙⴰⵖ ⵏ ⴰⵃⵎⴰⴷ ⵃⴰⵊⵊⵉ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵉⴳⴰⵏ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵖ ⵉⴳⵯⵔⵔⴰⵎⵏ ⵏ ⵙⵍⴰ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵉⴹⴼⵕⵏ ⵜⴰⵖⴰⵔⴰⵙⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵊⴰⵣⵓⵍⵉⵢⵢⴰ.

ⵉⵙⵎⴹⴰⵍ ⵏ ⵉⴳⵯⵔⵔⴰⵎⵏ ⵖ ⵜⴰⵎⴷⵉⵏⵜ ⵜⴰⵇⴱⵓⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵙⵍⴰ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵙⵙⴰⵏ ⵙⵍⴰ ⵙ ⵜⵓⴳⵜⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵖⵎⵔⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵡⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙⵏ ⵏ ⵉⴳⵯⵔⵔⴰⵎⵏ ⴷ ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⵟⵉⵏ, ⵣⵓⵏ ⴷ ⴰⵙⵎⴹⵍ ⵏ ⵓⴳⵯⵔⵔⴰⵎ ⵙⵉⴷⵉ ⵄⴱⴷ ⵍⵍⴰⵀ ⴱⵏ ⵃⵙⵙⵓⵏ ⵍⵍⵉ ⴷ ⴽⵜⵜⵉⵏ ⵎⴷⴷⵏ ⵖ ⵓⵏⵎⵓⴳⴳⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵓⴽⴰⴱⴰⵕ ⵏ ⵜⵙⴰⴼⵓⵜⵉⵏ. ⴷ ⵓⴳⵯⵔⵔⴰⵎ ⵙⵉⴷⵉ ⴰⵃⵎⴰⴷ ⴱⵏ ⵄⴰⵛⵉⵔ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵉⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵙⵙⴰⵏⵏ ⵙ ⵓⵙⵓⵊⵊⵉ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵓⴹⴰⵏ. ⵜⵉⵖⵎⵔⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵜⵙⵎⴹⴰⵍ ⴰⴷ ⵎⵓⵏⵏⵜ ⴱⴰⵀⵔⴰ ⵖ ⴽⵕⴰⴹ ⵡⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙⵏ : ⵟⵟⴰⵍⵄⴰ ⴷ ⵣⵏⴰⵜⴰ ⴷ ⵍⴱⵍⵉⴷⴰ. ⵖ ⵓⵣⵎⵣ ⵏ ⵍⵎⴰⵔⵉⵏⵉⵢⵢⵉⵏ ⴽⵜⵔⵏⵜ ⴱⴰⵀⵔⴰ ⵜⵖⵎⵔⵉⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵙⵍⴰⵡⴰⵏ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⵉⴱⵏⴰ ⴰⴱⵓ ⴰⵍⵃⴰⵙⴰⵏ ⵜⵉⵏⵎⵍⵍ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵔⵉⵏⵉⵢⵜ ⴰⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⵏ 1340, ⵓⵍⴰ ⴰⵜⵉⴳ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵉⴼⴰ ⵉ ⵜⵎⵣⴳⵉⴷ ⵏ ⴰⵍⵎⴰⵙⵊⵉⴷ ⴰⵍⴰⵄⴹⴰⵎ, ⴰⵔ ⵜ ⵉⵏⵏ ⵜⵜⵖⴰⵡⴰⵍⵏ ⵉⵎⴰⵙⵙⴰⵏⵏ ⴷ ⵉⵏⴱⴹⵉⵜⵏ ⵣⵣⵖ ⴽⴰⵢⴳⴰⵏⵏ ⵜⵉⵙⴳⴳⵉⵡⵉⵏ. ⵖⵎⴽⴰⵏⵏ ⵓⵍⴰ ⵖ ⴱⴰⴱ ⵃⵙⴰⵢⵏ, ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⴳⴳⵓⵜⵏ ⵜ ⵜⵙⵎⴹⴰⵍ ⵏ ⵉⴳⵯⵔⵔⴰⵎⵏ ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵉⴱⵏⴰ ⵜⵉⵏⵎⵍⵍ ⵍⵍⵉ ⴷ ⵢⵓⵔⵔⵉⵏ ⵜⴳ ⴰⵙⴳⵏⴰⴼ/ⵎⴰⵔⵉⵙⵜⴰⵏ. ⵟⵟⵍⵄⴰ ⴷ ⵏⵜⵜⴰⵜ ⴳⴳⵓⵜⵏ ⴳⵉⵙ ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⵟⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵉⴳⵯⵔⵔⴰⵎⵏ, ⵣⵓⵏ ⴷ : ⵙⵉⴷⵉ ⵎⵓⵃⵎⵎⴰⴷ ⵎⴼⴹⴹⵍ 1071, ⴷ ⵙⵉⴷⵉ ⴰⵃⵎⴰⴷ ⵟⵟⴰⵍⴱ 1072, ⴷ ⵙⵉⴷⵉ ⴰⵃⵎⴰⴷ ⵃⵊⵊⵉ 1103, ⴷ ⵉⵡⵉⵙ ⵄⴱⴷ ⵍⵍⴰⵀ ⵍⵊⴰⵣⵣⴰⵔ1122, ⴷ ⵍⵃⵙⵏ ⵍⵄⴰⵢⴷⵉ 1131. ⵉⵍⵉⵏ ⵡⵉⵢⵢⴰⴹ ⵖ ⴱⵕⵕⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵓⴳⴰⴷⵉⵔ ⵏ ⵙⵍⴰ, ⵣⵓⵏ ⴷ ⵜⴰⵙⵎⴹⵍⵜ ⵏ ⵙⵉⴷⵉ ⴱⵍⵍⵄⴱⴱⴰⵙ 540 / 1145, ⴷ ⴰⴱⵓ ⵎⵓⵙⴰ ⴰⴷⴷⵓⴽⴽⴰⵍⵉ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵉⵎⵎⵓⵜⵏ ⴰⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⵏ 550. ⴳ ⵜⴰⵣⵡⴰⵔⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⵉⵙ19 ⵜⵓⴳⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵖⴰⵔⴰⵙⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵚⵓⵡⵡⴼ ⵙⵙⴼⵔⵓⵔⵏⵜ ⵖ ⵙⵍⴰ ⵣⵓⵏ ⴷ ⵣⵣⴰⵡⵉⵢⴰ ⵜⵜⵀⴰⵎⵉⵢⴰ ⵖ ⵓⵣⵎⵣ ⵏ ⵙⵉⴷⵉ ⵎⵓⵃⴰⵎⵎⴰⴷ ⴱⵏ ⵄⴰⴱⴷ ⵍⵍⴰⵀ, ⴷ ⵣⴰⵡⵉⵢⴰ ⴷⴷⵔⵇⴰⵡⵉⵢⴰ, ⴷ ⵣⵣⴰⵡⵉⵢⴰ ⴰⵍⴽⵜⵜⴰⵏⵉⵢⴰ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵉⴱⵏⴰ ⵙⵉⴷⵉ ⵎⵓⵃⴰⵎⵎⴰⴷ ⴱⵏ ⵄⴱⴷ ⵍⴽⴱⵉⵔ ⵍⴽⵜⵜⴰⵏⵉ ⴰⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⵏ 1902

ⵉⵙⴰⵖⵓⵍⵏ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]