ⴽⵓⵏⴼⵓⵛⵢⵓⵙ

ⵙⴳ ⵡⵉⴽⵉⴱⵉⴷⵢⴰ
ⴽⵓⵏⴼⵓⵛⵢⵓⵙ

ⵉⵏⵖⵎⵉⵙⵏ ⵓⴷⵎⴰⵡⴰⵏⵏ
ⵜⴰⵍⴰⵍⵉⵜ 28 ⵛⵓⵜⴰⵏⴱⵉⵔ 551 ⴷ.ⵜ.
ⵣⵓ, ⵍⵉⵢⵓ
ⵜⴰⵎⵜⵜⴰⵏⵜ 11 ⵉⴱⵔⵉⵔ 479 ⴷ.ⵜ.
ⴽⵢⵓⴼⵓ, ⵍⵉⵢⵓ
ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵜⴰⵣⵣⵓⵍⴰⵏⵜ

ⴽⵓⵏⴼⵓⵛⵢⵓⵙ (ⵙ ⵜⴰⵛⵉⵏⵡⵉⵜ: 孔子 ; ⴱⵉⵏⵢⵉⵏ: Kǒng Zǐ ; ⵡⵉⵢⴷ: K'ung³-tzŭ³) ⵉⴳⴰ ⴰⵎⵣⵡⴰⵔⵓ ⵏ ⵉⴼⵍⵙⴰⴼⵏ ⵉⵛⵉⵏⵡⵉⵢⵏ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵢⵉⵡⵙⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵙⵏⵚⴱ ⵏ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵎⴰⴳⵉⵜ ⵏⵏⴰ ⴳ ⵍⵍⴰⵏ ⴰⴽⴽⵡ ⵜⵎⵢⵓⵔⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵛⵉⵏⵡⵉⵢⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵜⴰⵏⴰⵎⵓⵏⵜ ⴷ ⵜⵖⴰⵔⵉⵡⵉ .ⵓⵙⵡⵓⵔⵉ ⵏ ⵜⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ ⵉ ⵎⴷⴷⵏ ⵙ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵖⴰⵔⴰⵙⵜ ⵢⴰⵜⵜⵓⵢⵏ. ⵜⵉⵖⵓⵔⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴷ ⵜⴼⵍⵙⴰⴼⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵖⵓⵔⵙⵏⵜ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⴹⴼⵕ ⴰⵅⴰⵜⴰⵔ ⴳ ⵜⵡⵏⴳⵉⵎⵜ ⴷ ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵉⵛⵉⵏⵡⵉⵢⵏ ⴷ ⵉⴽⵓⵔⵢⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵉⵢⴰⴱⴰⵏⵉⵢⵏ ⴷ ⵜⵉⵟⵡⴰⵏⵉⵢⵏ ⴷ ⵉⵢⵉⵉⵜⵏⴰⵎⵉⵢⵏ. ⴰⵔ ⵜⵜⵉⵏⵉⵏ ⵉⵎⵙⵍⵉ ⵏ ⵛⵛⵉⵏⵡⴰ. ⵉⵍⵓⵍ ⴽⵓⵏⴼⵓⵛⵢⵓⵙ ⵏⵖ ⴽⵓⵏⴽ ⴰⵙⵍⵎⴰⴷ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙ ⵏ 551 ⴷⴰⵜ ⵜⵍⴰⵍⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵄⵉⵙⴰ. ⵎ. ⴳ ⵜⵎⵏⴰⴹⵜ ⵏ ⵣⵓ ( ⁇ 邑) ⵜⴰⵎⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵛⵉⴼⵓ ⵏ ⴰⵙⵙⴰ, ⴳ ⵜⵎⵏⴰⴹⵜ ⵏ ⵛⴰⵏⴹⵓⵏⴳ ⴳ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ ⵏ ⵛⵛⵉⵏⵡⴰ. ⵜⵍⵍⴰ ⵜⵎⵏⴰⴹⵜ ⴰⴷ ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⵉⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵛⵓ, ⵎⴰⵛⴰ ⵜⵍⵍⴰ ⵙ ⵜⵖⴰⵔⴰⵙⵜ ⵜⴰⵙⵉⵎⴰⵏⵜ ⴷⴷⵓ ⵜⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ ⵏ ⵉⴳⵍⴷⵓⵏⵏ ⵉⴷⵖⵔⴰⵏⵏ ⵏ ⵍⵢⵓ. ⵉⵎⵎⵓⵜ ⴱⴰⴱⴰⵙ ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⵉⴳⴰ ⴰⵎⵥⵥⵢⴰⵏ. ⵉⴷⵔ ⴷ ⵎⴰⵙⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴳ ⵓⵥⵍⴰⵢ ⴰⵅⴰⵜⴰⵔ. ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⵉⴳⴳⴰ, ⵉⵙⵡⵓⵔⵉ ⴳ ⵜⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ. ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⵏ ⵖⵉⴽⴰⵏⵏ ⵢⵓⵡⵉ ⵜⴰⵡⵓⵔⵉ ⵜⴰⵏⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ, ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⵏ ⵖⵉⴽⴰⵏⵏ, ⵉⵙⵙⵓⴷⵓ 16 ⵏ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴳ ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵙⴳ ⵜⵎⴷⵉⵏⵜ ⵙ ⵜⵎⴷⵉⵏⵜ. ⵎⵏⵏⴰⵡ ⵏ ⵎⵉⴷⴷⵏ ⵃⴰⴹⵕⵏ ⴷⵉⴳⵙ, ⴷ ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⵉⵍⴽⵎ 50 ⵏ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙ, ⵉⴷⴷⴰ ⵙ ⵜⵡⵓⵔⵉ ⵏ ⵜⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ. ⵎⴰⵛⴰ ⴽⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵡⵉⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵅⵛⵏⵏ ⵖⵉⴼⵙ, ⵥⴹⴰⵕⵏ ⴰⴷ ⴰⵙ ⵙⵙⵓⴼⵖⵏ ⵙⴳ ⵜⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ, ⴷ ⵢⵓⵊⵊⴰ ⵖⵉⴼⵙⵏ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵔⵜ ⴰⴽⴽⵡ. ⴷ ⵉⵙⴽⵔ ⴽⵕⴰⴹ ⴷ ⵎⵔⴰⵡ ⵏ ⵉⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙⵏ ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⵏ ⵖⵉⵍⴰⴷ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵎⵉⵚⵏⵢⵓⵕ ⴰⵎⵓⴷⴷⵓ. ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⴰⴷ ⵉⴷⵡⵍ ⵖⵔ ⵜⵎⴷⵉⵏⵜ ⵏ ⴷⵣⴰⵢⵔ ⵙ ⵙⵎⵎⵓⵙ ⵉⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ. ⵉⵎⵎⵓⵜ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙ 479 ⴷⴰⵜ ⵜⵍⴰⵍⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⴰⵙⵉⵃ.

ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵏⵙ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵉⵜⵜⴰⵣⵣⴰⵍⵏ ⵉ ⵓⵣⵎⵣ ⵉⵣⵔⵉⵏ ⴰⵔ ⵉⵜⵜⴰⵡⵉ ⵎⵉⴷⴷⵏ ⴰⴷ ⴷⴷⵔⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵣⵎⵣ ⴰⴷ. ⵎⴰⵛⴰ ⵓⵔ ⵃⴰⴹⵕⵏ ⵉⵏⴱⴱⴰⴹⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵣⵎⵣ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴷ ⵜⴰⵏⵏⴰⵢⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⴼ ⵖⵉⴽⴰⵏⵏ, ⵢⵓⵎⵥ ⴽⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵓⵎⵏⵣⴰⵖ. ⵜⵓⵖⴰ ⵎⴳⴰⵍ ⴰⴷ ⴽⵉⴳⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵙⴳⴳⵡⴰⵙⵏ ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵜⵜⴰⵏⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⴷ ⵉⴽⴽⴰⵏ ⵉⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷⵏ ⵉⵛⵉⵏⵡⵉⵢⵏ ⵉⴷⵍⵉⵙⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴷ ⵜⵜⵓⵙⴱⴷⴷⵏ ⵉⵏⵍⵎⴰⴷⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ. ⴷ ⵥⵕⵏ ⴳⵉⵙ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵖⵣⵓ ⴰⵎⵣⴳⵓⵏ. ⴰⵛⴽⵓ ⵉⵇⵇⴰⵏ ⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵜⵜ ⵉⵔⵥⵎ ⵓⴳⴷⵓⴷ. ⵎⴰⵛⴰ ⴰⵔ ⵉⵙⵏⵉⵎⵎⵔ ⵎⵉⴷⴷⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵔⵎⵙⵏ ⵙ ⴷⴰⵜ. ⵎⴰⵛⴰ ⵉⵎⵉⴽ ⵙ ⵉⵎⵉⴽ ⵉⴷⴷⴰ ⵓⵙⵍⵎⴷ ⵏ ⴽⵓⵏⴼⵓⵙⵢⵓ ⵙ ⵜⵣⵎⵔⵜ ⵜⴰⵅⴰⵜⴰⵔⵜ, ⴷ ⵉⵎⴹⴰⴽⴰⵕⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴷ ⵉⵙⵍⵎⴰⴷⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴳ ⴽⵓⵍⵍⵓ ⵜⵉⵖⵔⵎⵉⵏ. ⵜⵙⵙⵏ ⵜⴼⵍⵙⴰⴼⵜ ⵏ ⴽⵓⵏⴼⵓⵙⵢⵓⵙ ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵉⵛⵉⵏⵡⵉⵢⵏ ⵙ 20 ⵏ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ - ⵙⴳ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⴰⵎⵣⵡⴰⵔⵓⵜ ⴷⴰⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵍⴰⵍⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⴰⵙⵉⵃ ⴰⵔ ⵜⴳⵉⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⵉⵙⵙ 19 ⵏ ⵜⵍⴰⵍⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⴰⵙⵉⵃ. ⵉⴳⴰ ⴽⵓⵏⴼⵓⵛⵢⵓⵙ ⵡⵉⵏⵏⴰ ⵢⵉⵡⵙⵏ ⵙ ⵜⵓⵎⵔⵜ ⴷ ⵜⵏⴼⵔⵓⵜ ⵜⴰⴷⵖⵔⴰⵏⵜ ⴳ ⵓⴳⴳⴰⵔ ⵏ 20 ⵏ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵏ ⵛⵛⵉⵏⵡⴰ. ⵓⵔ ⵜⵊⵊⴰ ⵜⵓⵏⴼⵓⵙⵉⵢⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵜⴰⵡⵉ ⴽⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵓⴹⵕⵉⵚ ⴱⵕⵕⴰ ⵏ ⵛⵛⵉⵏⵡⴰ. ⴳ ⵓⵣⵎⵣ ⵏ ⵜⵡⴰⵛⵓⵏⵜ ⵏ ⵀⴰⵏ, ⵙⵙⵏⴱⴹⵏ ⵉⵏⴱⴱⴰⴹⵏ ⵉⵛⵉⵏⵡⵉⵢⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵙⵜⵉⵏ ⵉⵎⵙⵡⵓⵔⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵡⴰⵏⴽ ⵙ ⵓⵣⵣⵔⴰⵢ ⵏ ⵉⵔⵉⵎⵏ ⵉⴱⵉⴷⴷⵏ ⵅⴼ ⵜⵓⵙⵙⵏⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵖⴰⵔⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵏ ⴽⵓⵏⴼⵓⵙⵢⵓⵙ. ⵎⴰⵛⴰ, ⴰⵙⵙⴰ, ⵜⵣⴷⵉ ⵜⵉⵏⵉⴳⵜ ⵏ ⴽⵓⵏⴼⵓⵛⵢⵓⵙ, ⴰⵛⴽⵓ ⵜⵙⵙⵓⴳⵔ ⵛⵛⵉⵏⵡⴰ ⵜⴰⴽⵓⵎⵓⵏⵉⵙⵜ ⴽⵓⵏⴼⵓⵛⵢⵓⵙ ⴷ ⵓⵍⵎⵎⵓⴷ ⵏⵏⵙ.

ⵉⴷⵍⵙⴰⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵙⴳ ⵓⴷⵍⵉⵙ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵉⵜⵜⵡⴰⵙⵙⵏⵏ ⵉⴳⴰ ⵜ ⵓⴷⵍⵉⵙ ⵏ "ⴰⵍⵛⵉ-ⵊⵏⵊⴰ", ⵉⴳⴰ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⴷⵍⵉⵙ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵙⵏⵎⴰⵍⴰ ⴷ ⵉⵙⵏⴼⵍⵓⵍ, ⴳⵉⵙ ⵉⵙⴼⵔⵓ ⴽⵏⵏ ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⴷ ⵉⵎⵏⵣⴰⵢⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵖⴰⵔⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵉⵖⵓⴷⴰⵏ. ⵉⴳⴰ ⵓⴷⵍⵉⵙ ⵏ" ⴰⵍⵛⵓ-ⵛⵢⵓ" ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⴷⵍⵉⵙ ⵏ ⵓⵎⵣⵔⵓⵢ ⵏⵏⴰ ⴳ ⵉⵜⵜⵢⴰⵔⴰⵏ ⵉⵎⵓⵙⵙⵓⵜⵏ ⵉⴷⵙⵍⴰⵏⵏ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵢⵊⵕⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵜⵎⴷⵉⵏⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ "ⵍⵓ" ."" ⵍⵙⵓ-ⵊⵏⵊ," ⵉⴳⴰ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⴷⵍⵉⵙ ⵏ ⵓⵎⵣⵔⵓⵢ ⵢⴰⴹⵏ, ⵎⴰⵛⴰ ⵉⴳⴰ ⵓⴳⴳⴰⵔ ⴰⴽⴽⵡ, ⴳ ⵉⵙⵎⵓⵏ ⴳⵉⵙ ⴰⴽⴽⵡ ⵡⵉⵏⵏⴰ ⵢⵓⴼⵏ ⴳ ⵜⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ ⵏ ⵉⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷⵏ ⵉⵎⵣⵡⵓⵔⴰ ⵙⴳ ⵉⵎⴳⵔⴰⴷⵏ ⴷ ⵜⵏⴼⵓⵙⵉⵏ.

ⵉⵙⴰⵖⵓⵍⵏ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]