ⴼⵕⴰⵏⵛⵉⵙⴽⵓ ⴱⵓⵜⵜⵉⵛⵉⵏⵉ

ⵙⴳ ⵡⵉⴽⵉⴱⵉⴷⵢⴰ
Madonna akked Urba, Galleria Franchetti
Nicolas Agʷrram akked Igʷrramen Catherine, Lucy, Margaret d Apollonia, tempera ɣef yifil

ⴼⵕⴰⵏⵙⵉⵙⴽⵓ ⴷⵉ ⵊⵢⵓⴼⴰⵏⵏⵉ ⴱⵓⵜⵜⵉⵛⵉⵏⵉ (1446 – 16 ⵢⵏⵏⴰⵢⵔ 1498), ⴷⴰ ⵉⵜⵜⵓⵙⵎⵎⴰ ⵙ ⵓⵎⴰⵜⴰ ⴼⵕⴰⵏⵙⵉⵙⴽⵓ ⴱⵓⵜⵜⵉⵛⵉⵏⵉ, ⵉⴽⴽⴰ ⵜ ⵉⵏⵏ ⵉⴳⴰ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵎⴽⵍⴰ ⴰⵡⵟⴰⵍⵢⴰⵏ ⴰⵣⴰⵢⴽⵓ ⵏ ⵜⵍⵙⵍⴰⵍⵉⵜ. ⵉⵍⵓⵍ-ⴷ ⴳ ⴼⵍⵓⵕⴰⵏⵚⴰ ⵉⵖⴰⵎⴰ ⴷⴰ ⵉⴽⵍⵍⵓ ⴰⵔ ⵜⴰⵎⵜⵜⴰⵏⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴳ 1498. ⵉⵣⵣⵔⵉ ⵓⵙⵙⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵍⵎⵎⵓⴷⵏⵏⵙ ⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵜⵙⴰⵡⵔⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵏⵉⵔⵉ ⴷⵉ ⴱⵉⵛⵛⵉ, ⵔⵓⵙⵉⵎⵓ ⵔⵓⵙⵍⵍⵉⴰⵏⴷⵔⵢⴰ ⴷⵉⵍ ⴼⵉⵔⵔⵓⵛⵜⵛⵓ. ⵉⵙⵔⵙⵍ ⵜⴰⵙⴰⵡⵓⵔⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵙⵉⵙ ⵉⵥⵍⵉⵏ ⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ ⵏ ⴼⵍⵓⵕⴰⵏⵚⴰ ⴹⴰⵕⴰⵜ ⵏ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵉⵣⵉ ⴳ ⵉⵙⵡⵓⵔⵉ ⴰⵎ ⵓⵎⴰⵡⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵏⵉⵔⵉ ⴷⵉ ⴱⵉⵉⵛⵛⵉ. ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⴽⵎⵎⵉⵛⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵡⵓⵔⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⴽⴰ ⴰⴷ ⵙⵔⵙ ⵉⵜⵜⵓⵔⵔⵓⵢⵏ ⵙ ⵓⵙⵔⵉⴷ ⴳ ⵎⴰⵢⴷ ⵉⵣⵔⵉⵏ, ⵎⴰⵛⵛ ⵓⴼⴰⵏ ⵉⵏⵎⵣⵔⵓⵢⵏ ⴳ ⵢⵉⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙⵏ ⴰⴷ ⴳⴳⵓⵔⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⵎⵏⵏⴰⵡⵜ ⵜⵡⵓⵔⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵢⴰⴹⵏⵉⵏ ⵙⵔⵙ ⵜⵜⵓⵔⵔⵓⵢⵏⵉⵏ ⵙ ⵜⵏⵥⵉ. ⵙⴳ ⵎⴰⵢⴷ ⵉⵜⵜⵓⵙⵎⵓⵜⵜⵔ ⵡⵓⵟⵟⵓⵏ ⵓⵎⵎⵉⴷ ⵏ ⵜⵡⵓⵔⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⵢⴰⵖⵓⵍ ⴷⴰ ⵉⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵃⴰⵙⴱ ⴰⵎ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵙⴳ ⵉⵎⵇⵔⴰⵏⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵥⵓⵔⵉ ⵏ ⵜⵍⵙⵍⴰⵍⵉⵜ ⴱⴰⵀⵔⴰ ⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵖⴹⴰⴼⵏⵉⵏ.

ⵜⵉⵡⵓⵔⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵏ ⴱⵓⵜⵜⵉⵛⵉⵏⵉ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⴷⴰⵔⵙ ⵜⴻⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵙⵙⴰⵏⵏⵉⵏ; ⴷ ⵜⴰⴱⵔⵏⴰⵛⵍ ⵏ ⵙⴰⴽⵔⴰⵎⵉⵏⵜ, "assumption" ⵏ ⵜⵎⴳⵓⴷⵜ ⴷ ⵎⴰⴷⵓⵏⵏⴰ ⴰⴽⴽⴷ ⵓⵔⴱⴰ ⴷ ⴳⵍⵓⵔⵢ ⴰⴽⴽⴷ ⵎⴰⵔⵢⴰⵎ ⵜⴰⴳⵔⵔⴰⵎⵜ ⵜⴰⵡⵎⵊⴷⴰⵍⵉⵢⵜ ⴷ ⴱⵉⵔⵏⴰⵔⴷ ⴰⴳⵯⵔⵔⴰⵎ.

ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵉⵍⵓⵍⴷ ⴼⵕⴰⵏⵙⵉⵙⴽⵓ ⴱⵓⵜⵜⵉⵛⵉⵏⵉ ⴰⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⵏ 1446 ⴳ ⴼⵍⵓⵕⴰⵏⵚⴰ, ⵎⵇⵇⴰⵔ ⴷ ⵏⵉⵜ ⵓⵔ ⵉⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵙⵙⴰⵏ ⵓⵙⴰⴽⵓⴷ ⵉⵏⵖⴷⵏ. ⴱⴰⴱⴰⵙ, ⵊⵢⵓⴼⴰⵏⵎⵏⵉ ⴷⵉ ⴷⵓⵎⵏⵉⴽⵓ ⴷⵉ ⴱⵢⵉⵔⵓ, ⵉⴽⴽⴰⵜ ⵉⵏⵏ ⵉⴳⴰ ⴰⵡⴷ ⵏⵜⵜⴰ ⵉⴳⴰ ⴰⵎⴽⵍⴰ. ⵙ ⵡⴰⴼⵓⵍⴽⵉ ⵏ ⵡⴰⴷⴷⵓⵔ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵟⵟⴰⴼ ⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵓⵎⴰⴹⴰⵍ ⵏ ⵜⵥⵓⵔⵉ ⴰⴽⵓⴷ ⴰⵏⵏ, ⵢⵓⴼⴰ ⴼⵕⴰⵏⵙⵉⵙⴽⵓ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⵡⵓⵔⵉ ⴷⴰⵔ ⵏⵉⵔⵉ ⴷⵉ ⴱⵉⵛⵛⵉ ⴰⵎ ⵓⵎⴰⵡⴰⵙ ⵏⵏⵙ. ⵉⴱⴷⴰ ⴰⵔ ⴰⵙ ⵉⵜⵜⴰⵡⵙ ⴳ ⵜⵙⴰⵡⵔⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵉⵊⵓⵊⵊⴳⵏ ⴰⵙⵙ ⵏ 22 ⵢⵓⵍⵢⵓ 1459 ⴷⴷⴰⵡ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵎⵖⵓⵏⵜ ⵏ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵓⵙⵍⵓⵖⵎⵓ. ⵜⴽⴽⴰ ⵜⵜ ⵏⵏ ⴷⴰⵔⵙ 13 ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⴳ ⵜⵉⵣⵉ ⴰⵏⵏ. ⵙ ⵜⵎⵏⵜⵉⵍⵜ ⵏ ⵜⴳⵔⵓⵎⵎⴰ ⵏ ⵉⵏⴰⵥⵓⵕⵏ ⴷⴰⵔ ⵜⵍⵍⴰ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵎⴼⴽⵉⵜ ⵜⴰⵅⴰⵜⴰⵔⵜ ⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵜⵙⴰⵡⵔⵜ ⴰⵏⵏ, ⵢⵓⴼⴰ ⵓⴼⴷⴷⴰⵎ ⵏ ⴱⵓⵜⵜⵉⵛⵉⵏⵉ ⴰⴷ ⵢⵉⵍⵉ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵙⴽⴰⵏ ⵉⴳⴰⵏ ⴰⵣⴰⵍⴰⵏ.

ⵎⵇⵇⴰⵔ ⴷⴰⵔⵙ ⵜⵍⵍⴰ ⵜⵎⵖⵓⵏⵜ ⵏ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ, ⵉⴼⵍ ⴼⵕⴰⵏⵙⵉⵙⴽⵓ ⵜⴰⵙⴰⵡⵔⵜ ⵏ ⴱⵉⵛⵛⵉ ⴳ ⵢⵓⵍⵢⵓⵣ 1460 ⴹⴰⵕⵜ ⵜⵥⴰ ⵡⴰⵢⵢⵓⵔⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵙⵍⵓⵖⵎⵓ ⵓⵔ ⴷ ⵓⴳⴳⴰⵔ. "ⴷⴰ ⵙⵙⴼⵔⵓⵏ ⵉⵎⴰⵙⵙⴰⵏⵏ ⵜⴰⵙⵉⵎⴰⵏⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵜⴰⵣⴰⵢⴽⵓⵜ ⵙ ⵜⵔⴰⵔⵉⵜ ⵏⵏⵙⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵏⵜⵉⵍⵜ ⵉ ⵜⵣⵔⵉⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵛⴰⵔⵔⵉèⵔ ⵏ ⴱⴰⴱⴰⵙ ⵖ ⵜⴽⵍⵓⵜ ⴷ ⵓⵍⴰ ⵛⵓⵏⵏⵛⵜⵉⵓⵏⵙ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴷ ⵉⵏⴰⵥⵓⵔⵏⵢⴰⴹⵏⵉⵏ". ⵏⵏⴰⵏ ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ ⵍⵍⵉⵖ ⴷⵉⴼⴼⵓⵖ ⵜⵙⴰⵡⵔⵜ ⵏ ⴱⵔⵉⵛⵛⵉ, ⵉⵣⵣⵔⵉ ⵖ ⵜⵉⵏ ⴰⵏⴷⵔⴰ ⴷⵍ ⴼⵉⵔⵔⵓⵜⵛⵢⵓ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵉⵎⵉⴽⴽ, ⵙ ⵜⵎⵓⵏⵉ ⵏ ⵎⵏⵏⴰⵡ ⵖ ⵛⵓⵏⵜⵎⴱⵓⵔⴰⵔⵉⵙ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⵙⴳⵙⵏ ⵍⵓⵏⴰⵔⴷⵓ ⴷⴰ ⴼⵉⵏⵛⵉ, ⵍⵓⵔⵏⵣⵓ ⴷⵉ ⵛⵔⴷⵉ, ⴷⵓⵎⵏⵉⵛⵓ ⴳⵀⵉⵔⵍⴰⵏⴷⴰⵉⵓ, ⴷ ⴱⵉⵜⵔⵓ ⴱⵔⵓⴳⵉⵏⵓ. ⵉⵙ ⴽⴰ, ⵓⵔ ⵉⵍⵍⵉ ⴽⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵏⵥⴰ ⵉⵜⵜⵓⵣⵎⵎⴰⵎⵏ ⵉⵎⵎⴰⵍⵏ ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ ⵏⵉⵜ ⵉⵙⵡⵓⵔⵔⵉ ⵖ ⵜⵙⴰⵡⵔⵜ ⵏ ⴼⵉⵔⵔⵓⵜⵛⵢⵓ. ⴰⵔ ⵉⵜⵜⵢⴰⴼⴰ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵡⴰⵏⵥⴰ ⵉⴳⴰⵏ ⵓⵙⵔⵉⴷ ⴼ ⵡⴰⵙⵙⴰⵖ ⵏⵏⵙⵏ ⴰⴽⵓⴷⴰⵏⵏ ⵖ "ⵛⵓⵍⵍⴰⴱⵓⵔⴰⵜⵉⵓⵏ" ⵏ ⴼⵕⴰⵏⵙⵉⵙⴽⵓ ⴷ ⴼⵉⵔⵔⵓⵜⵛⵢⵓ ⵖ ⵉⵜⵙⵏⵜ ⵜⵡⵓⵔⵉⵡⵉⵏ, ⴷ ⵜⵣⵔⵉⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵎⴰⵎⴽⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⴽⴽⴰⵏ ⴼ ⵜⴼⵍⵡⵉⵏ ⵏ ⴼⵕⴰⵏⵙⵉⵙⴽⵓ. ⵉⵔⵡⴰⵙ ⵉⵙ ⴷⵜⴽⴽⴰ ⵜⵎⵏⵜⵉⵍⵜ ⵏ ⵓⵢⴰⴷ ⴰⵎⵃⵉⵣⵡⵔ ⴷ ⵢⵉⵏⴰⵥⵓⵔⵏ ⵉⵎⴰⴼⴽⴰⵢⵏ ⵢⴰⴹⵏⵉⵏ ⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵜⵙⴰⵡⵔⵜ, ⵉⵔⵥⵎⴷ ⴱⵓⵜⵜⵉⵛⵉⵏⵉ ⵖ 1469 ⵜⴰⵙⴰⵡⵔⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵙⵉⵙ ⵉⵥⵍⵉⵏ, ⵣⵓⵏ ⴷ ⵉⵎⴽⵏⵏⴰ "ⵔⴱⵓⵔⵜⴷ" ⵖ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵡⴰⵔⵔⴰ ⵏ "ⴰⵔⴱⵉⵜⵔⴰⵜⵉⵓⵏ" ⵎⵓ ⵉⵜⵜⵓⵖⵓⵍ ⵓⵙⴰⴽⵓⴷ ⵙ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⵉⴳⴰⵏ ⵢⴰⵏ. ⵉⴷⵓⵎ ⵡⴰⵙⵙⴰⵖ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵏ ⵜⵡⵓⵔⵉ ⴷ ⴼⵉⵔⵔⵓⵜⵛⵢⵓ ⴰⵔ 1475 ⵙ ⵎⴰⵢⴷ ⵉⴷⵔⵓⵙⵏ.

ⵜⵉⵡⵓⵔⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⴰⴳⵉⵟⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵙⴰⴽⵕⴰⵎⵉⵏⵜ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

Agiṭun n Sacrament

ⵜⴻⵜⵜⵓⴼⴽⴰ ⴰⴳⵉⵟⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵙⴰⵛⵔⴰⵎⵏⵜ (ⵜⴰⴱⵔⵏⴰⵛⵍ ⵏ ⵙⴰⵛⵔⴰⵎⵏⵜ) ⵣⵓⵏ ⴷ ⵢⴰⵜ ⴰⵍⵜⴰⵔⴱⵉⵛ (ⵜⴰⴼⵍⵡⵉⵜ ⵉⵜⵜⵉⵍⵉⵏ ⵖ ⵉⵙⵖⵔⵙⵏ) ⵉ ⵓⵙⵖⵔⵙ ⵓⵏⵏⵉⴳ ⵏ ⵜⴳⵍⵉⵣⵜ ⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵎⴱⵓⵍⵉ, ⵟⵟⴰⵍⵢⴰⵏ. ⴰⵔ ⵜⴻⵜⵜⵖⴰⵎⴰ ⵜⴰⴷ, ⵜⴳⴰ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵣⵖ ⵜⵡⵓⵔⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵏ ⴱⵓⵜⵜⵉⵛⵉⵏⵉ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵜⴻⵜⵜⵡⴰⵖⴹⴰⴼⵏⵉⵏⵜ. ⵉⵜⵜⵓⴳⵏⴰ ⴰⵏⴷⵔⵡ ⴰⴳⵯⵔⵔⴰⵎ, ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⴳⴰⵏ ⴰⴳⵯⵔⵔⴰⵎ ⴱⴰⵜⵔⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵜⴳⵍⵉⵣⵜ ⴰⴽⵓⴷ ⴰⵏⵏ, ⴼ ⵓⵣⵍⵎⴰⴹ ⵏ ⵓⵙⵉⴱⵉⵔⵢⵓⵎ (ⵛⵉⴱⵓⵔⵉⵓⵎ). ⴼ ⵓⴼⴰⵙⵉ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⵜⵉⴳⵎⵎⵉ ⵏ ⵓⵛⵀⴰⵔⵉⵙⵜ; ⵜⵍⵍⴰ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⴼⵍⵡⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵊⵓⵀⵏ ⴰⴳⵯⵔⵔⴰⵎ ⴰⵎⵙⴷⴷⴰⵎ. ⴷⴷⴰⵡ ⵙⵏⴰⵜ ⵜⵓⴳⵏⵉⵡⵉⵏ-ⴰⴷ ⵜⵉⵔⵙⵍⴰⵍⵉⵏⵜ, ⵉⵍⵉⵏⵜ ⴽⵔⴰⴹⵜ ⵜⴼⵍⵡⵉⵏ ⵎⵥⵥⵉⵏⵉⵏⵜ ⵖ ⴱⵔⴷⵍⵍⴰ (ⵜⴰⴷⴰⴱⵓⵜ ⴼ ⴰⵔ ⵙⵔⵓⵙⵏ ⵉⴷ ⴰⵍⵜⴰⵔⴱⵉⵛ). ⴼ ⵓⵣⵍⵎⴰⴹ, ⵉⵜⵜⵓⴳⵏⴰ "ⵎⴰⵔⵜⵢⵔⴷⵓⵎ" ⵏ ⴰⵏⴷⵔⵡ ⴰⴳⵯⵔⵔⴰⵎ ⴷⴷⴰⵡ ⴰⵙ ⵙ ⵓⵙⵔⵉⴷ. ⴰⵔ ⵉⵜⵜⵢⴰⴼⴰ ⵉⵎⵏⵙⵉ ⴰⵏⴳⴳⴰⵔⵓ ⵖ ⵜⵓⵥⵥⵓⵎⵜ ⴷ ⵎⴰⵔⵜⵢⵔⴷⵓⵎ ⵏ ⵓⴳⵯⵔⵔⴰⵎ ⵊⵓⵀⵏ ⴰⵎⵙⴷⴷⴰⵎ ⵖ "ⵛⵓⵎⴱⴰⵔⵜⵎⵏⵜ" ⴼ ⵓⴼⴰⵙⵉ; ⴷⴷⴰⵡ ⵜⴼⵍⵉⵡⵜ ⵉⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏ ⵏ ⵊⵓⵀⵏ ⴰⵎⵙⴷⴷⴰⵎ.

ⵉⵜⵜⵓⵖⵜⵙ ⵢⴰⴷⵍⵍⵉ ⴰⴷ ⵜⵎⵎⴷ "ⴰⵍⵜⴰⵔⴱⵉⵛ" ⵖ 15 ⵖⵓⵛⵜ 1486, ⵉⵙ ⴽⴰ ⵓⵔ ⵏⵉⵜ ⵜⴻⵜⵜⵔⵙ ⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵜⴳⵍⵉⵣⵜ ⴰⵔ 1491. ⵓⵔ ⵜⴻⵜⵜⵓⵙⵎⴷ ⵜⵡⵓⵔⵉ-ⵏⵏⵙ ⴰⵔ 1504 ⵍⵍⵉⴳ ⵜⴽⵍⵍⴼ ⵜⴰⴳⵍⵉⵣⵜ ⵉⵡⵉⵙ ⵏ ⴼⵔⴰⵏⵛⵙⵛⵓ ⴱⵓⵜⵜⵉⵛⵉⵏⵉ, ⵔⴰⴼⴼⴰⵍⵍⵓ, ⴰⴷ ⴰⵙ ⵉⴽⵎⵎⵍ ⵜⴰⵡⵓⵔⵉ ⵙ ⵓⵎⵙⴰⵙⴰ ⴷ ⵜⵎⵖⵓⵏⵜ ⵜⴰⵏⵚⵍⵉⵢⵜ.

ⵜⵓⵔⴷⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵎⴱⴳⵓⵏⵜ ⴰⴽⴷ ⵉⴳⵯⵔⵔⴰⵎⵏ ⴷ ⵓⵎⵢⵍⵍⵍ ⴰⵏⴳⵍⵓⵙⴰⵏ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]

ⵜⵓⵔⴷⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵎⴳⵓⴹⵜ

ⵜⴳⴰ ⵜⵓⵔⴷⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵎⴳⵓⴷⵜ (ⴰⵙⵙⵓⵎⴱⵜⵉⵓⵏ ⵓⴼ ⵜⵀ ⴼⵉⵔⴳⵉⵏ) ⵜⴰⵡⵓⵔⵉ ⵏ ⴼⵔⴰⵏⵛⵙⵛⵓ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵉⵜⵜⵢⴰⵡⵙⵙⴰⵏⵏ. ⴽⴽⴰⵏ ⵜ ⵉⵏⵏ ⵖ ⵜⵣⵡⵉⵔⵉ ⴰⵔ ⵜⵜⵔⴰⵔⴰⵏ ⵜⴰⵊⵎⵉⵍⵜ ⵏ ⵓⵙⵏⵓⵍⴼⵓ-ⵏⵏⵙ ⵉ ⵙⴰⵏⴷⵔⵓ ⴱⵓⵜⵜⵉⵛⵍⵍⵉ ⴼ ⵓⵢⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⴱⴷⵔ ⴼⴰⵙⴰⵔⵉ ⵖ ⵓⴷⵍⵉⵙ-ⵏⵏⵙ "ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵉⵏⴰⵥⵓⵔⵏ", ⵎⴰⵛⴰ ⵙⵙⵏⵥⴰⵏ ⵉⵏⵎⵣⵔⵓⵢⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵥⵓⵔⵉ ⴹⴰⵔⵜ ⵡⴰⴽⵓⴷ ⴰⵏⵏ ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ ⵜⴰⵡⵓⵔⵉ ⵏ ⴱⵓⵜⵜⵉⵛⵉⵏⵉ ⴰⴷ ⵜⴳⴰ. ⵉⴷⴷⵎ ⴱⵓⵜⵜⵉⵛⵉⵏⵉ ⵖ ⵜⴽⵍⵓⵜ-ⵏⵏⵙ ⵣⵉⴽⴽ ⵏ 1475, ⵉⵙⵎⴷ-ⵜⵜ ⵖ 1477 ⴹⴰⵔⵜ ⵙⵉⵏ ⵢⵉⵙⴳⴳⴰⵙⵏ. ⵜⵖⵉⵢ ⵜⴼⵍⵡⵉⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵜⴻⵜⵜⴰⵢⴰⴼⴰ ⵖ ⴰⵙⵙ ⴰ ⵖ ⵓⵙⴰⵍⴰⵢ ⴰⵏⴰⵎⵓⵔ ⴳ ⵍⵓⵏⴷⵓⵏ.

ⵉⵙⴰⵖⵓⵍⵏ[ⵙⵏⴼⵍ | ⵙⵏⴼⵍ ⴰⵙⴰⴳⵎ]